Recent Technology for the Survival and Production of Giant Tiger
Shrimp Penaeus monodon along South East Coast of India
In the present study, an attempt has been made to culture the giant tiger
shrimp, P. monodon in six ponds each with 0.8 ha near Alagankulam
village of Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu. The salinity of the six
ponds was ranging between 16-30 ppt and pH was 7.6 to 8.0. Minimum 3.9
ppm dissolved oxygen and maximum 4.2 ppm was recorded during the culture
period. The temperature was ranging between 27 to 30°C and the transparency
was 35 to 50 cm. Harvesting was carried out in ponds 1, 2 at DOC 142 and
3, 4 at DOC 143 and 5,6 at DOC 149. Average body weights of the ponds
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are 38.46, 40.00, 40.00, 37.00, 38.46 and 37.00, respectively.
Highest survival 76% was recorded in pond 4 and the lowest survival 68%
recorded in pond 1. The average survival for all six ponds was calculated
as 72%. Maximum production was reported in pond 2 (2,154 kg) and minimum
was in the pond 1 (1,874 kg). The total production in all ponds was 11,998
tons. The average body weight and average daily growth was calculated
as 38.49 and 0.26 g, respectively in all ponds. The maximum amount of
feed was consumed by the shrimps in pond 2 (2,940) and minimum was in
pond 1 (2,550). The FCR for all ponds were 1.36. Maximum net profit was
obtained from pond 2 (Rs. 3,91,940) and minimum was in the pond 1 (Rs.
2, 69,492). So it is confirmed that 12 m-2 is an ideal stocking
density for the culture of P. monodon as evidenced from the net
profit Rs. 19,18,710. To get this profit, proper water quality management
and feed management is essential.
Shrimp is more popular source of protein food which commands high prices
in the national and international markets. This great importance increased
the exploitation of shrimp, which leads to sudden decline in natural stock.
Thus, it has become imperative to culture commercially important shrimp
species. India is rich in natural shrimp resources and nearly 52 species
of shrimp are contributed in fishing (Swaminathan, 1980). Of these, 8
penaeid species are economically important and successful culture is practiced
for two species viz., Peneaus monodon and P. indicus. The
aquaculture industry is growing at an alarming rate surprising some major
hurdles (disease out break and pollution) during its development (Ravindranath,
2001). The higher stocking densities and poor water quality management
might be the reasons for disease outbreak and pollution. So sustainable
shrimp farming is need of the hour to overcome the above said problem
(Ganapathy, 2002; Reddy, 2004). Hence in the present study sustainable
shrimp farming was practiced in six ponds of Ramanathapuram district of
Tamil Nadu, India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Location of the Farm
The farm is located on the Northern bank of Nari Estuary in Athangkarai.
The farm is situated about 3 km away from Alagankulam village. The southern
side of the farm is elevated to a height of 3.5 m from Nari estuary. The
experiment was conducted from March 2005 to February 2006. The total area
covered is 4.2 ha of which water spread area are about 3.6 ha. Totally
six ponds are there, each pond size is 0.6 ha.
The ponds are rectangular in shape and semi intensive type with stocking
densities of 12 post larvae m-2. The depth of pond was 1.2
m and pond bed slope 30 cm from inlet point towards outlet. Monk type
outlet was constructed and it was opposite to the inlet. The dimension
of the sluice was 2 m long, 0.7 m width and 2 m height. The shutter was
made out of wooden planks, whereas the filter is made up of nylon mesh
fitted in wooden frames. All ponds have a common drainage canal and the
drainage canal is excavated on the eastern side of the ponds. The depth
of drainage canal is constructed 2 feet below the culture pond bottom
to facilitate easy flow of water from the individual ponds. The width
of drainage canal is about 80 cm. Four numbers of paddle wheel aerators
of 1 hp (team) Taiwan made were provided per pond. Aerators placed 5 m
from the dike, about 30-40 m distance from each other. They were used
to create the water current for the accumulation of black soil and waste
in the center of the pond and also to increase the dissolved oxygen in
the water column.
Initially all the ponds of the present study was allowed to dry and
crack to increase the capacity of oxidation of hydrogen sulphide and to
eliminate the fish eggs, crab larvae and other predators. Then pond bottom
was scrapped 2 to 4 cm by using a tractor blade to avoid topsoil. Then
the pond bottom was ploughed horizontally and vertically a depth of 30
cm to remove the obnoxious gases, oxygenate the bottom soil, discoloration
of the black soil to remove the hydrogen sulphide odour and to increase
the fertility. The soil pH was recorded in the ponds with the help of
cone type pH meter. The average pH was calculated from the collected data
and required amount of lime was applied to neutralize the acid soil condition
and increases the availability of nutrient.
The initial water levels in all ponds were maintained at 70 cm level.
Required amount of organic fertilizers such as rice bran; groundnut oil
cake, dry cow dung and yeast were soaked over night and applied the extract
to all the ponds. The same procedure was continued for three days. After
three days the water color turned to light green. Then water level was
raised to 100 cm of the ponds and added urea and super phosphate to improve
the primary production. Fertilization enhanced the optimal algal bloom
in the ponds and the transparency in the ponds ranged from 33 to 36 cm.
During the culture period lime was used to maintain the pH and algal bloom
and chain dragging was done daily before stocking of seeds.
The P. monodon (PL16 pass the PCR test and stress test) seeds
were purchased from VSR hatchery, Mahabalipuram and were transported in
oxygenated double-layered polythene bags with crushed ice packs between
inner and outer covers of the bag and packed in a carton. The seeds were
brought to the farm site and bags were kept in the pond water for some
time to adjust the temperature. Then the pond water was added slowly into
the seed bag to adjust the salinity and pH. Subsequently the seeds were
released slowly in to the ponds. The stocking density per pond was 12
m-2 (72,000 post larvae pond-1).
Water Quality Management
The water level was measured by using a standard scale with cm marking.
The water salinity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and transparency
was measured by using a hand refractometer, pH pen, thermometer, dissolved
oxygen meter and secchi disc, respectively.
During the first 3-4 weeks of culture, water exchange is not required.
Water was exchanged five days once or depends upon the water and shrimp
quality. The purpose of water exchange is to maintaining water quality
and also to stimulate molting of the shrimp, resulting in acceleration
of growth and production.
Feed management plays a major role in the shrimp culture. CP (Tirawan)
feed was used during the entire cycle, distributed manually by using of
boat. During the first month after stocking, feeding rates were based
on estimated survival and feeding tables and distributed four times per
day. After 30th DOC, daily rations were adjusted using feed trays and
increased to five times per day there after.
Monitoring of Growth
Cast net was used to measure the growth rate of shrimps. The first
sampling was taken after 40th day of culture and number of individuals
and the average body weights were recorded in each sampling. Sampling
was regularly performed every ten days until harvest.
A bag net was fitted on outlet canal with 20 numbers mesh of width
1 m and length of 4 m. The water level in the ponds was reduced from 1
m to 60 cm and then out let was opened and shrimp were caught and collected.
The salinity of the experimental pond was ranged from 16-30 ppt throughout
the culture period. The pH recorded during the culture period was from
7.6 to 8.0. The dissolved oxygen was ranging between 3.9 to 4.2 ppm in
all culture ponds. The temperature of the pond water was ranged between
27 to 30°C. Transparency was ranges from 35 to 50 cm during the culture
period (Table 1). Harvesting was carried out in ponds
1, 2 at DOC 142 and 3, 4 at DOC 143 and 5, 6 at DOC 149. Average body
weights of the ponds 1, 2, 3,4, 5 and 6 were 38.46, 40.00, 40.00, 37.00,
38.46 and 37.00, respectively. Highest survival was recorded in pond 4
(76%) and the lowest survival was recorded in pond 1 (68%). The average
survival for all six ponds was calculated as 72%. Maximum production was
reported in pond 2 (2,154 kg) and minimum was in the pond 1 (1,874 kg).
The total production in all ponds was 11,998 kg. The maximum amount of
feed was consumed by the shrimps in pond 2 (2,940) and minimum was in
pond 1 (2,550). The FCR for all ponds were calculated as 1.36. Maximum
net profit was obtained from pond 2 (Rs. 3, 91940) and minimum was in
the pond 1 (Rs. 2, 69,492). However, the net profit from all ponds was
Rs. 19,18,710 (Table 2).
||Water quality parameters of the culture ponds
||Harvest details of P. monodon in culture ponds
There has been a considerable increase in the
culture of brackishwater shrimp due to its taste, market demand both national
and international markets. In order to prevent many problems due to shrimp
culture, sustainable shrimp farming is the need of the hour. Ideal pond
size for shrimp culture was 1 or less than 1 ha (Ramanathan et al.,
2005). In the present investigation also 6 ponds were used for shrimp
culture and each pond size was 0.6 ha. Evethough shrimps are bottom dwelling
organisms, the depth and volume of water in a pond has certain physical
and biological consequences. The volume of water behaves like a buffer,
which prevents weather fluctuations from influencing the environment in
which shrimp lives. The ideal water depth is between 0.8 to 1.5 m depending
upon the stage of culture. It is recommended that a minimum depth of 1
m will be maintained at operational level. In the present study 100 cm
water level was maintained in all ponds throughout the culture period.
The stocking density between 10-20 post larvae m-2 is ideal
for successful shrimp farms (Ramanathan et al., 2005). In the present
study the seeds were stocked at the stocking density of 12 m-2 in
The maintenance of good water quality is essential for optimum growth
and survival of shrimps. The levels of physical, chemical and biological
parameters control the quality of pond waters. The level of metabolites
in pond water can have an adverse effect on the growth. Good water quality
is characterized by adequate oxygen and limited level of metabolites.
Excess feed, faecal matter and metabolites will exert tremendous influence
on the water quality of the shrimp ponds. Hence critical water quality
parameters are to be monitored carefully as adverse conditions may be
disastrous effect on the growing shrimps (Ramanathan et al., 2005).
Salinity is important parameters to control growth and survival of shrimps.
At high salinity the shrimps will grow slowly but they are healthy and
resistance to diseases. If the salinity is low the shell will be weak
and prone to diseases. The salinity of the present study was maintained
16-30 ppt in all ponds. Muthu (1980) and Karthikean (1994) recommended
a salinity range of 10-35 ppt was ideal for P. monodon culture.
While Chanratchkool et al. (1994) and Rajalakshmi (1980) maintained
the salinity of 10-30 and 15-20 ppt, respectively. Chen (1980) opined
that salinity ranges of 15-20 ppt are optimal for culture of P. monodon.
There are few reports (Shivappa and Hambry, 1997; Ramakrishna Reddy, 2000;
Collins and Russel, 2003), which stated that P. monodon adapted
quite well in freshwater conditions also because of its wide range of
pH is one of the vital environmental characteristics, which decides the
survival and growth of shrimp under culture; it also affects the metabolism
and other physiological process of shrimps. The optimum range of pH 6.8
to 8.7 should be maintained for maximum growth and production (Ramanathan
et al., 2005). In the present study pH was ranging between 7.6
to 8.0 for all culture ponds. Saha et al. (1999) noticed the pH
of 8.11 to 8.67 in low saline ponds. Ramakrishna Reddy (2000) was recommended
pH of 7.5 to 8.5 for P. monodon culture. The pH of pond water is
influenced by many factors, including pH of source waters and acidity
of bottom soil and shrimp culture inputs and biological activity. The
most common cause of low pH in water is acidic bottom soil, liming can
be used to reduce soil acidity. In most common cause of high pH is high
rate of photosynthesis by dense phytoplankton blooms. When pH is high
water exchange will be better choice (Boyd, 2001).
Dissolved oxygen plays an important role on growth and production through
its direct effect on feed consumption and maturation. Oxygen affects the
solubility and availability of many nutrients. Low levels of dissolved
oxygen can cause damages in oxidation state of substances from the oxidized
to the reduced form. Lack of dissolved oxygen can be directly harmful
to shrimps and cause a substantial increase in the level of toxic metabolites.
Low-level of oxygen tension hampers metabolic performances in shrimp and
can reduce growth and molting and cause mortality (Gilles Le Molluae,
2001). The dissolved oxygen in all the culture ponds in the present study
was ranging between 3.9 to 4.2 ppm (Table 1).
Water temperature is probably the most important environmental variables
in shrimp cultures, because it directly affects metabolism, oxygen consumption,
growth, molting and survival. In general, a sudden change of temperature
affects the shrimp immune system. The optimum range of temperature for
the black tiger shrimp is between 28 to 30°C (Ramanathan et al.,
2005). The optimum range of temperature for P. monodon was between
26 to 33°C as observed in the present study (MPEDA, 1980).
The transparency is mainly depends on the presence of phytoplankton.
The secchi disc reading should be between 30-40 cm (MPEDA, 1980). The
optimum range of secchi disc reading is between 30 to 60 cm to the juvenile
stage and between 25 to 40 cm to the sub adult and final stage. The transparency
of the present study is 35 to 50 cm (Table 1). Ramakrishna
Reddy (2000) also observed similar transparencies (35-50 cm) for his study.
The reading less than 30 cm mean that the phytoplankton density is high.
If it is more than 40 cm indicates, low population of phytoplankton. For
the growth of phytoplankton adequate quality of sunlight is needed. Due
to low intensity of light during the culture period, the plankton bloom
was less. Hence, the transparency was more.
Feed is one of the essential inputs in shrimp production and increase
profits. Feed management is highly subjective, as feed consumption cannot
be directly observed. In the present study CP feeds was used for all ponds
and the amount was followed as per feed chat. Maximum amount of feed was
given to pond 2 followed by 5, 4, 3, 6 and 1. The FCR for all ponds were
calculated as 1.36. Average Indian cultured food conversion ratios were
varying between 1.5 to 1.75 (Paul Raj, 1999). Cheekait (1995) observed
the food conversion ranges were varying from 1.50 to 1.55 when microencapsulated
diets are used. Saha et al. (1999) observed that the food conversion
ratios of 1.31 to 1.58 in low saline ponds and 1.35 and 1.68 in high saline
ponds. Ramakrishna Reddy (2000) observed FCR of 1.58 for his study.
Periodic sampling is very vital for successful shrimp culture. It is
recommended to do weekly or fortnightly sampling to check the health condition
as well as to estimate the growth of shrimps. Sampling also helps to know
the average weight and this would help in estimating the total biomass
in the pond for better-feed management. Growth of shrimps depends mainly
on pond water quality and effective management of feeding. It is observed
that growth rate of shrimps in the present study is rapidly increasing
after DOC 40 in all ponds due to the accurate feed manipulation by sampling.
In the present study higher survival (75%) was recorded in the pond 4
and the lower survival (68%) was in the pond 1. The survival ranging between
68-76% and the average survival for all the ponds were 72% (Table 2).
Krantz and Norris (1975) stated that survival rates of 60 to 80% are to
be expected for P. monodon under suitable rearing conditions. It
was achieved because the stocking density of 5, 000 to 8,000 pls ha-1.
In the present study also totally 7,200 pls were stocked for each ponds.
Ramakrishna Reddy (2000) got 76% survival and average body weight of 35.22
g. According to him 70 -80% survival is possible if the idle conditions
are maintained for P. modonon. In the present study the average
body weight of the shrimps were calculated as 38 g.
The size of culture shrimps, market price and molting percentage of shrimps
plays vital role in fixing the harvesting. So timely harvest is very essential
in aquaculture system. The total production from all six ponds was 11,998
kg. So it is confirmed that 12 m-2 is an ideal stocking density
for the culture of P. monodon as evidenced from the net profit
Rs. 19, 18,710. To get this profit, proper water quality management
and feed management is essential.
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