Nature has provided a complete storehouse of remedies to cure ailment of mankind.
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for disease because
they contain component of therapeutic values. According to the WHO, 80% of the
world population continues to rely mainly on traditional medicines for their
health care (WHO, 1993). Presently there is an increasing
interest worldwide in herbal medicines accompanied by increased laboratory investigation
into the pharmacological properties of bioactive ingredients and their ability
to treat various diseases. Numerous drugs have entered the international market
through exploration of ethnopharmacology and traditional medicine. Although
scientific studies have been carried out on a large number of Indian botanicals,
a considerably smaller number of marketable drugs or phytochemical entities
have entered the evidence-based therapeutics. Efforts are needed to establish
and validate evidence regarding safety and practice of Ayurvedic medicines (Cooper,
2004; Patwardhan et al., 2005).
Sphaeranthus indicus (Astraceae) commonly known as Gorakhmundi (Hindi)
is an annual spreading herb which grow approximately 15-30 cm in height. The
plant is distributed throughout the plains and wet-lands of India, Sri Lanka
and Australia. Used traditionally for the treatment of jaundice, leprosy, fever,
pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, haemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia,
skin diseases and as a nerve tonic, the plant is known to possess varied medicinal
properties and is reportedly used in Ayurvedic preparations for treating epileptic
convulsions, mental illnesses and hemicranias (Ambavade
et al., 2006; Jha et al., 2010). This
study was aimed to present an overview of traditional use, phytochemical and
pharmacological investigations of bioactive compounds present in this plant.
Traditional uses: S. indicus is a well known ethnomedicinal plant used in Ayurveda. Its use in the Indian traditional folk medicine is also well documented. The uses of different parts of S. indicus in traditional system of medicines are given in Table 1.
Alternative and complementary medicinal uses: Among the various species
of Sphaeranthus, S. indicus is used extensively throughout the
world. Formulations of S. indicus have been incorporated in a variety
of bases for use in the treatment of minor wounds (Sadaf
et al., 2006).
MORPHOLOGY AND MICROSCOPY
Morphology: Sphaeranthus indicus is an annual herb with sessile, decurrent, obovate, bristly serrate, downy, glutinous leaves and globular heads of purple flowers. The stem is greenish in colour; roots are brown externally and internally light brown, tuberous with 10-15 cm in length and 0.1-0.4 cm in diameter with longitudinal striations and transverse scars seen at regular intervals.
Odour is characteristic.
|| Ethnomedicinal uses of S. indicus
||Microscopy of the stolon and root of S. indicus, (A).
Photomicrograph showing transverse section of the stolon of S. indicus,
(B). A portion of vascular bundle of the stolon (enlarged) Ep-epidermis,
En-endodermis, Pf-pericyclic fibres, Ph-phloem, Xy-xylem, Pi-pith, Sph-secondary
phloem, Spf-secondary phloem fibres and (C). Microscopy of the root of S.
indicus Cr-cork, Xy-xylem, Ph-phloem, Sph- secondary phloem
Microscopy: The microscopy of the roots and stolon, powder characteristics of this plant were studied. The root showed secondary characters and had a circular outline. The epiblema consisted of a single layer of barrel shaped cells, while endodermis was made up of barrel shaped cells with casparian thickening. Open vascular bundle were observed. Secondary phloem consisted of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma, while secondary xylem consisted of tracheids. The epidemis consisted of a single layer of cells having a cuticular lining on the outer tangential wall. The endodermis consisted of barrel shaped cells with casparian thickening. Pericycle was composed of alternate bands of sclerenchyma and parenchyma with the sclerenchyma patches forming a cap on each vascular bundle. Secondary xylem consisted of tracheids, vessels, fibers and xylem parenchyma (Fig. 1).
Powder microscopy: Lignified fibers, starch grains and calcium oxalate
crystals were observed in the powder (Shirwaikar et al.,
Phytochemical analysis of air dried roots and rhizome of S. indicus
carried out revealed the presence of steroids, fats and oils in petroleum extract;
carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins, phenols, steroids, fats and oils
in the methanolic extract and carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins,
phenolic compounds, saponins and alkaloids in the aqueous extract (Shirwaikar
et al., 2006a; Ambavade et al., 2006).
A sesquiterpene lactone, 7α-hydroxyfrullanolide was isolated from
S. indicus. Microorganisms have been utilized to modify the structures
of a number of naturally occurring bioactive compounds. Microbial transformations
affected by Aspergillus species of 7α-hydroxyfrullanolide (1) yielded
7α-hydroxy-11, 13-dihy drofrullanolide (2) and 13-acetyl-7α- hydroxyfrullanolide
(3) and their structures were determined spectroscopically (Rahman
et al., 1994).
Three eudesmanolides, 11α, 13-dihydro-3α, 7α-dihydroxyfrullanolide,
11α, 13 - dihydro - 7α, 13-dihydroxyfrullanolide and 11α, 13-dihydroxy-7α-hydroxy-13-methoxyfrullanolide
was isolated from the flower heads of S. indicus.
||Biologically active constituents isolated from S. indicus
The IR spectra of all the compounds showed characteristic 5-membered lactone
absorptions (1752, 1745 and 1757 cm-1, respectively) and revealed
the presence of OH and non-conjugated olefin functions. The overall mass spectrum
pattern of these three compounds in comparison to that of 1 indicated that they
were all eudesmanolides. The molecular ions were confirmed by Fast Atom Bombardment
Mass Spectroscopy (FABMS) and Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry (FDMS). The
mass spectrum of 11α, 13-dihydro-3α, 7α-dihydroxyfrullanolide
showed a molecular ion at m/z 266. The other prominent peaks appear at m/z 251
(C14H19O4), 248 (C15H20O3),
233 (C14H17O3), 215 (C14H15O2)
and 187 C13H15O2 (Shekhani
et al., 1991).
A large number of constituents have been isolated from the extracts of the
whole herb, flowers and leaves. Essential oil, obtained by steam distillation
of the whole herb, contains ocimene (4), α-terpinene (5), methyl-chavicol
(6), α-citral (7), geraniol (8), α-ionone (9), β-ionone (10),
δ-cadinene (11), p-methoxycinnamaldehyde(12) and an alkaloid sphaeranthine.
The alcoholic extract of powdered drug contains stigmasterol (13), β-sitosterol
(14), hentriacontane (15), n-triacontanol, sesquiterpene lactone, sesquiterpine
glycoside, sphaeranthanolide, flavone and isoflavone glycosides (Ambavade
et al., 2006; Jha et al., 2010; Jha
et al., 2009).
The aerial parts of S. indicus revealed it to be quite rich in essential
oils, glycosides and eudesmanolides, along with some uncharacterized sesquiterpenes,
phenolic glycosides and sesquiterpene lactones. A novel flavonoid C-glycoside,
5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6- C-glycosylflavone (16), was isolated from the aerial
part of S. indicus, along with eight known compounds, namely n-pentacosan,
stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, hentriacontane, β-D-glucoside of hentriacontane,
n-triacontanol, sphaeranthine and a phenolic glycoside (C22H26O12).
The structure of 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6- C-glycosylflavone was established by
Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR)
studies (Mishra et al., 2007; Duraipandiyan
et al., 2009).
Two new eudesmanolides were isolated from the aerial part of S. indicus
and their structures were established as 11α, 13-dihydro-3α, 7α-dihydroxyeudesm-4-en
6α, 12-olide (17) and 4-en-6β, 7α-eudesmanolide (18) on the basis
of spectral data and comparison of spectral data with closely related compounds
(Jadhav et al., 2007). Literature reports on
the aerial parts of this plant revealed the presence of an essential oil, glycosides
and eudesmanolides. An alkaloid sphaeranthine and an isoflavone 5,4-dimethoxy-3-prenylbiochanin
7-O-β-galactoside with some interesting sesquiterpenes and a new flavone
glycoside were isolated from this herb (Tiwari and Khosa,
2010). The few biological active constituents isolated from S. indicus
are given in Fig. 2.
The hydrodistilled essential oil of S. indicus was analyzed by Gas Chromato
graphy (GC) and GC/MS. Thirty eight compounds making up 84.0% of the oil were
|| List of biologically active compounds that have been isolated
from S. indicus
The major compounds were: 2, 5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (18.2%), α-agarofuran
(11.8%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%) and selin-11-en-4α-ol (12.7%), respectively
(Kaul et al., 2005). List of the biologically
active compounds that have been isolated from S. indicus are given in
Pharmacological properties of S. indicus: Pharmacological investigations have confirmed that S. indicus exhibit a broad range of biological properties. However, the crude extract of the plant have been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Some of which are very interesting for possible future development.
Anxiolytic activity: The anxiolytic activity of petroleum ether, alcohol
and water extracts of the flower of S. indicus using Elevated Plus Maze
(EPM), Open Field Test (OFT) and Foot-Shock Induced Aggression (FSIA) experimental
model were investigated in mice using diazepam as a standard drug. In EPM study,
decrease in aversion to the open arm is the result of an anxiolytic effect,
expressed by the increased time spent and entries in the open arm. The petroleum
ether and alcohol extracts at doses of 10 and 30 mg kg-1 significantly
increased the time spent and percent entries in the open arm, with percent decrease
in the closed arm. In OFT model all extracts showed significant increase in
the ambulation (the number of squares crossed at periphery) and total locomotion
(total number of squares travelled). Anxiolytic treatment decreased the anxiety
induced inhibition of exploratory behaviour. Experimental data showed that the
petroleum ether extract has more prominent anxiolytic activity in the EPM and
OFT tests. FSIA test reported that the numbers of fighting bouts (vocalisation,
leaping, running, rearing and facing each other with some attempts to attack
by biting) were decreased significantly by the petroleum ether and alcohol extracts
at 30, 100 and 300 mg kg-1. Results showed that the different flower
extracts of S. indicus exert significant anxiolytic effects on mice which
may underlie the therapeutic action of the plant (Ambavade
et al., 2006).
Analgesic and antipyretic activity: The analgesic and antipyretic activities
of various extracts of whole plant of S. indicus were investigated by
Eddys hot plate, Tail immersion and Brewers yeast induced pyrexia
models on albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and paracetamol were used as standard
drugs. The petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extract doses of 200 and
400 mg kg-1 showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity
when compared to standard diclofenac sodium and paracetamol respectively. The
chloroform and ethanol extracts showed potential significant antipyretic activity
(p<0.05) from 1h onwards whereas aqueous extracts exhibited the activity
after 2 h. It was suggested that the extracts targeted prostaglandins, which
are involved in the late phase of acute inflammation and pain perception, thus
suggesting the use of S. indicus as an analgesic and an antipyretic (Nanda
et al., 2009).
Antioxidant activity: A study was carried out to assess the free radical
scavenging potential of the ethanolic extract of S. indicus by different
in vitro models like ABTS, DPPH, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide radical
and iron chelating activity. The calculated 50% inhibitory dose (ID50)
values were 41.99, 33.27, 25.14 and 22.36% when evaluated in ABTS, DPPH, superoxide
dismutase and nitric oxide radical tests respectively. The extract also interfered
with the formation of ferrous-0-phenantroline complex, thus suggesting that
the extract has metal chelating activity. However extract showed only moderate
scavenging activity of iron chelation (14.2%). The total antioxidant activity
of the extract was calculated, based on formation of phosphomolybdenum complex,
measured at 695 nm and found to be 160.54 nmol g-1 ascorbic acid.
The results suggested that ethanolic extract of S. indicus may play an
important role in free radical scavenging. The flavonoids and other constituents
were suggested to be essential for strong activity (Shriwaikar
et al., 2006b).
Another antioxidant investigation was carried out using aqueous extract of
this plant. Extract at 1000 μg mL-1 showed maximum scavenging
of the radical cation, ABTS (26.21%), DPPH (24.95 %), superoxide dismutase (17.74%)
and nitric oxide radical (10.63%) respectively. However, the extract showed
only moderate scavenging activity of iron chelation (9.62%). Total antioxidant
capacity of the extract was found to be 127. 85 nmol g-1 ascorbic
acid. The findings justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the
indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value (Prabhu
et al., 2009).
Antihyperlipidemic activity: Hyperlipidemia is the most prevalent indicator
for susceptibility to atherosclerotic heart disease. The antihyperlipidemic
activity of the alcoholic flower head extract of S. indicus was investigated
in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The alcoholic extract when
administered at a dose of 500 mg kg-1 effectively suppressed the
atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia. The extract also caused considerable
decrease in body weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low-Density Lipoprotein
(LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) whereas significant increase was
observed in the level of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) as compared to control.
The extract showed a marked reduction in LDL: HDL-c ratio and atherogenic index.
It was concluded that effects of S. indicus extract may be due to an
increase in the activity of Lecithin: Cholesterol acetyl transferase, which
incorporates free cholesterol free LDL into HDL and transfers it back to VLDL
and intermediate density lipoprotein. The reduction in the triglyceride level
might be due to increase in activity of the endothelium bound lipoprotein lipase.
S. indicus may, therefore, be capable of exerting a potential protective
role in atherosclerosis (Pande and Dubey, 2009).
Antimicrobial activity: The antimicrobial activity of extract of S.
indicus aerial parts and flowers was tested by in vitro disc diffusion
method using the following microbial strains viz., Bacillus subtilis(MTCC
441), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis
(MTCC 3615), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli
(ATCC25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Klebsiella pneumoniae
(ATCC15380) and fungal strainsCandida albicans(MTCC 227), Aspergillus
niger (MTCC 1344) and Botrytis cinerea. A principle sesquiterpene
lactone, 7-hydroxyfrullanolide isolated from S. indicuswas found to possess
potent antimicrobial effect. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values
for different strains and extracts ranged from 5 to 0.039 mg mL-1.
The MIC of hexane extract of S. indicus flower was 0.31, 0.15 and 5 mg
mL-1 for B.subtilis, S. aureus and S. epidermidis,
respectively. On the other hand, the aerial parts showed higher MIC at 2.5 mg
mL-1 for B.subtilis, 5 mg mL-1 for Staphylococcus
spp. and 5 mg mL-1 for E. faecalis as compared to the flower.
Most of the gram negative bacteria showed higher MIC (>5 mg mL-1)
for both the extracts of flower and aerial parts. The extract showed pronounced
antibacterial and antifungal properties on all the microbes tested (Duraipandiyan
et al., 2009).
A bicyclic sesquiterpene lactone was isolated from the petroleum ether extract
of the aerial part of S. indicus. The compound was found to exhibit strong
antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, S. albus, E. coli, Fusarium
sp., Helminthosporium sp. and other microorganisms. The results shows
that extract of S. indicus were active in vitro against tested
microorganisms (Singh et al., 1988).
Hepatoprotective activity: Aqueous extract and methanolic extract of
the flower heads of S. indicus were evaluated for their in vivo
hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect using paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity
in rats. The serum of the methanol extract group at a dose of 300 mg kg-1
when analyzed for various biochemical activities of liver marker enzymes viz.,
SGOT, SGPT), ACP, ALP bilirubin and total protein showed a significant hepatoprotective
effect when compared to the same dose of aqueous extract. This was confirmed
by studying the liver histopathology of treated animals. Methanolic extract
also exhibited a significant change (p<0.05) in level of SOD, CAT and GPX
by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and lipid peroxidation level in homogenated
liver of rats. The results showed that methanolic extract of S. indicus
possessed potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect in paracetamol induced
hepatotoxicity thus suggesting therapeutic usefulness of S. indicus
in chronic liver disease (Tiwari and Khosa, 2010).
Immunomodulating activity: The effect of bioactive fraction of S.
indicus along with Cyclophos Phamide (CP) on humoral as well as cellular
immunity and in addition to establish its fingerprint profile by HPTLC so as
to facilitate the identification and characterization of different components
of the fraction. Effect of bioactive fraction and CP on Humoral Antibody (HA)
titre and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response was carried out using
Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBCs) as antigen in mice. DTH is antigen specific and
causes erythema and induction at the site of antigen infection in immunized
animals. The animals were divided into seven groups. Treatment groups were doses
with bioactive fraction (50-800 mg kg-1, p.o.) for 7 days. The standard
immunosuppressant drug CP was administered on days 4-6 (50 mg kg-1),
while the control group was given sodium carboxy methylcellulose. The animals
were immunized by injecting 0.1 mL-1 20% fresh sheep red blood cells
suspension via the intraperitonial route. Antibody levels were determined by
haemagglutination technique. The difference between the pre and post-challenge
foot thickness expressed in millimeters was taken as a measure of delayed type
hypersensitivity. The animals receiving bioactive fraction at doses of 200 (p<0.05)
and 400 mg kg-1 (p<0.001) treatment along with CP showed a dose
dependent increase in HA titre indicating the enhanced responsiveness of macrophages
and subsets of T and B-lymphocytes involved in antibody synthesis, while an
increase in DTH response at dose of 400 mg kg-1 (p<0.001) indicated
that the drug has a stimulatory effect on lymphocytes and necessary cell types
required for the expression reaction. The results suggested that the bioactive
fraction influences both humoral and cell-mediated immunity and offers protection
against immunosuppression induced by the cytotoxic agent cyclophosphamide (Bafna
and Mishra, 2006).
Petroleum ether extract from the flower heads of S. indicusLinn was
found to be effective in increasing phagocytic activity, HA titer and DTH when
tested in mice. Petroleum extract at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 showed
significant activity. If higher doses the activity was either decreased or showed
no change. The results revealed that the drug acts as an immunomodulatory agent,
by stimulating humoral and cellular immunity as well as phagocytic function
(Bafna and Mishra, 2007).
Wound healing activity: The effect of cream containing ethanolic extract
of S. indicus was evaluated for wound healing activity by the excision
wound method in guinea pigs. The cream was applied in vivo on the paravertebral
area for 15 days. The cream significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction
and the period of epithelialization and had activity comparable to standard
drug, neomycin. Wound contraction was expressed as percentage reduction of original
wound size. The healing percentage was found to be 78-89%. In addition to wound
healing, the cream was found to be beneficial in treating eye infection in guinea
pigs. The results justify the folkloric use of S. indicus in the treatment
of skin diseases (Sadaf et al., 2006).
The wound healing activity of S. indicus flower head, ointments of extracts
in varying proportions were prepared and tested in albino rats. The efficacy
of the extract was investigated on parameters like wound contraction, tensile
strength measurement and determination of hydroxyproline content in rats. Constituents
of hydroxyproline are a measure of concentration of collagen. Determination
of hydroxyproline content in granular tissue was done by colorimetry, the estimation
of which helps to clinically assess the progress rate of the healing process
in the connective tissue of the wound. The study involved comparison of wound
healing activity with various formulations. The formulation comprising of 2%
(w/w) alcoholic extract of flower head of S. indicus was found to be
superior as compared to that of control and standard formulation. The greater
hydroxyproline content found in healed wounds as compared to control and standard
formulation suggest that alcoholic extract of S. indicus play an important
role in wound healing (Jha et al., 2009).
Psychotropic activity: The hydroalcoholic extract of S. indicus was
evaluated for its neuropharmacological effects in rats and mice. The extract
at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg kg-1 when administered to mice by
the oral route, showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity,
exploratory behaviour and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in the mice.
Neuroleptic potential of S. indicus extract was observed by the results
in which S. indicus antagonized apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice,
produced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Furthermore
S. indicus had no effect on motor-coordination as determined by the rota-rod
test. These results provide evidence that the hydroalcoholic extract of S.
indicus may contain psychoactive substances that are sedative in nature
with possible neuroleptic properties (Galani and Patel,
Bronchodialatory activity: The bronchodilatory effect of the methanolic
extract of the whole plant of S. indicus and its various fractions (petroleum
ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate) were investigated in histamine
induced acute bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The methanolic extract and its fractions
showed significant protection (p<0.001) against bronchospasm, induced by
histamine in guinea pigs, comparable to with the standard chlorpheniramine maleate
(2 mg kg-1), thereby suggesting that the plant S. indicus
has bronchodilatory activity (Sarpate et al., 2009).
Anti-macrofilaricidal activity: Lymphatic filariasis, the second leading
cause of permanent and long-term disabilty in the world, is a result of infection
with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Twenty
methanolic extracts of medicinal plant were screened in vitro at doses
of 1-10 mg mL-1 by worm mortality assay against adult Setaria
|| Summary of significant research finding on S. indicus
The methanolic extract of S. indicus showed complete inhibition of worm
motality and subsequent mortality at 1 mg mL-1. The MTT assay was
carried out at 1 mg mL-1 and 4 h incubation period. S. indicus
exhibited 61.20% inhibition in formazan formation as compared to the control
(Nisha et al., 2007).
Anti-allergic activity: The effects of S. indicus on mast cell
stabilizing activity were studied. The protective effect of different extracts
of the whole plant of S. indicus against sheep serum induced mast cell
degranulation was evaluated. Ethanol extract of S. indicus at doses of
150 and 300 mg kg-1 and ethyl acetate extract at the dose of 100,
150 and 300 mg kg-1 showed slightly better protection of mast cell
degranulation (77-86%) than the standard drug ketotifen (75%) in the sheep serum
model. These extracts also showed better mast cell stabilizing activity (77-88%)
than the standard drug (69%). These results suggest that S. indicus has
potent mast cell stabilizing effects thereby inhibiting mediator release from
mast cells (Mathew et al., 2009).
Antidiabetic activity: The hypoglycemic effects of the dried petroleum
ether extracts of the flower head of S. indicus were studied in Wistar
rats. Various in vitro studies showed that alloxan is selectively toxic
to pancreatic beta cells, leading to the induction of cell necrosis. Cytotoxic
action of alloxan is mediated by reactive oxygen species, with a simultaneous
massive increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, leading to a rapid destruction
of beta cells. The extract was administered once at a dose of 50, 100 and 200
mg kg-1 body weight. The extract at the dose of 200 mg kg-1
significantly lowered blood glucose level (107±4.09) of the diabetic
rats after 6 h of extract administration. This report endorses the traditional
claims of S. indicus for its anti-diabetic activity in the Bundelkhand
region (Jha et al., 2010).
The antidiabetic activity of the alcoholic extract of S. indicus was
studied on streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rat model. Oral administration
of S. indicus for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in blood
glucose levels with increases in hepatic glycogen and plasma insulin levels.
Fasting normal rats treated with the alcoholic extract of S. indicus
showed significant improvement in the oral glucose tolerance test. Glibenclamide
was used as a reference standard. The findings demonstrate that the alcoholic
extract of S. indicus may be useful in the treatment of diabetes (Prabhu
et al., 2008).
Sphaeranthus indicus is a plant distributed throughout the plains and wet lands in India, Sri Lanka and Australia. Well-known in the Indian and folkloric system of medicine for several ailments viz. jaundice, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, haemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, skin diseases, anthelmintic, as a nerve tonic etc, research carried out using different in vitro and in vivo techniques of biological evaluation have supported most of these claims.
The oil prepared using the plant root is reportedly useful in treating scrofula
and as an aphrodisiac. The external application of a paste of this herb is beneficial
in treating pruritus and edema, arthritis, filariasis, gout and cervical adenopathy.
It is also useful for the treatment of piles and hepatitis (Ambavade
et al., 2006). List of the significant research finding concluded
on S. indicus are given in Table 3.
This study is the outcome of an in-house non-financially supported study and authors declare no conflict of interest. The authors would like to thank Manipal Health Science Library, Manipal University, Manipal, India.