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Research Article
Effect of Biofertilizer and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth of Summer Mungbean

Muhammad Kamrul Islam, Shah Md. Asraful Islam , Md. Harun-or-Rashid , A.F.M.G. Faruque Hossain and Mohammed Mahamodul Alom
 
ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out at the field laboratory of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from March 2002 to June 2002 to evaluate the effect of biofertilizer (Bradyrhizobium) and plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA) on growth of summer mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). The experiment was laid out by RCBD with three replications and two factors (variety and treatment). There were altogether 12 treatment combinations. Most of the growth parameters such as number of branches plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, number of effective nodules plant-1, number of non-effective nodules plant-1, root dry weight plant-1, nodule dry weight plant-1 was the height due to the application of biofertilizer (Bradyrhizobium). On the other hand, plant height, leave dry weight plant-1, shoot dry weight plant-1 and total dry weight plant-1 was the height due to the application of plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA). However, biofertilizer (Bradyrhizobium) and plant growth regulators (GA3 and IAA) showed statistically identical performance on Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR). In addition, among the mungbean varieties, Binamoog-5 performed better than that of Binamoog-2 and Binamoog-4.
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Muhammad Kamrul Islam, Shah Md. Asraful Islam , Md. Harun-or-Rashid , A.F.M.G. Faruque Hossain and Mohammed Mahamodul Alom , 2006. Effect of Biofertilizer and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth of Summer Mungbean. International Journal of Botany, 2: 36-41.

DOI: 10.3923/ijb.2006.36.41

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijb.2006.36.41

INTRODUCTION

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is an important pulse crop of global economic importance. It ranks first position in price, fourth in acreage and sixth in production in Bangladesh (BBS, 2001). Mungbean has a special importance in intensive crop production system of the country for its short growing period (Ahmed, 1989). Mungbean covers an area of 55,100 ha and production was about 36,000 metric tons (BBS, 2001). The average yield of mungbean in Bangladesh is about 570 kg ha-1, which is much lower than that of India and some other countries of the world. So use of seed inoculation with effective Bradyrhizobium strains and application of plant growth regulators seem to be the most effective way for the cultivation of summer mungbean. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium increased 4.3 to 162% grain yield over uninoculated control in mungbean cultivation (Vaishya et al., 1983) Bradyrhizobium can also play an important role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) are the important growth regulators. It was reported that GA3 stimulate stem elongation and yield (Deotale et al., 1989), increase dry weight (Hore et al., 1988) as well as grain yield (Maske et al., 1998). Foliar application of IAA also found to be increased plant height, number of leaves plant-1, fruit size with consequent enhancement in seed yield in different crops like groundnut (Lee, 1990), cowpea (Khalil and Mandurah, 1989). In view of above facts, the present research work was designed to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium) and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on the growth parameters of summer mungbean varieties (Barimoog-2, Barimoog-4 and Barimoog-5).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in the field laboratory of the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh in 2002. There were four treatments viz., (I) T1 = Control (untreated), (ii) T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), (iii) T3 = Indole acetic acid (IAA) and (iv) T4 = Gibberellic acid (GA3). Three mungbean varieties viz., (I) V1= Barimoog-2, (ii) V2 = Barimoog-4 and (iii) V3 = Barimoog-5 were used in the experiment. The land was prepared by three ploughing followed by laddering. The stubbles were removed from the land. The land was laid out by RCBD with three replications and two factors (variety and treatment). There were altogether 12 treatment combinations. So the total numbers of plots were 36 and the size of unit plot was 2x2 m. The block-to-block and plot-to-plot distance was 1 m. The land was fertilized @ 15 kg ha-1 N, 13 kg ha-1 P and 13 kg ha-1 K, while bio-fertilizer plot received only PK at the same rate. The fertilizers were applied at final land preparation. Seed rate was 25 kg ha-1. Seeds were sown in line sowing method maintaining 3 cm depth. Line to line distance was 25 cm. Liquid Bradyrhizobium mix culture were mixed thoroughly with seeds and placed in a cool dry place and sown in the fixed plots. Solution of 600 ppm IAA and 100 ppm GA3 was sprayed by hand sprayer at 30 days after sowing. First and second weeding and thinning was done at 15 and 35 days after sowing and plant-to-plant distance was maintained 4 cm. Four plants from each plot were sampled for recording growth and dry mater production at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing. The collected data were statistically analyzed and the treatments mean were compared by DMRT (Gomez and Gomez, 1984).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on growth of summer mungbean was determined at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (Table 1). Bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators showed significant variation on plant height, number of branches plant-1 and number of leaves plant-1 in all counting dates. At 30 Days After Sowing (DAS), plant height varied from 24.08 to 27.76 cm, where the highest plant height was found in T2 and the lowest plant height was found in control. But, at 40 and 50 DAS, the highest plant height was found in T4 and the lowest plant height was found in control. This result is identical to Thakur and Panwar (1995) who found longer plant of Vigna radiata by the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium strain. Mislevy et al. (1989) also found increased height in soybean plant by spraying GA3. The highest number of branches plant-1 and number of leaves plant-1 were found in T2 and the lowest in control at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing. Similarly, Thakur and Panwar (1995) found increased number of branches plant-1 in Vigna radiate by inoculation with Bradyrhizobium. Deotale et al. (1998) also reported that seed treatment with 100 ppm GA3 increase number of branches and leaves.

Effect of varieties on growth of summer mungbean was determined at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (Table 2). Varieties showed significant variation on plant height, number of branches plant-1 and number of leaves plant-1 in all counting dates. The highest plant height, number of branches plant-1 and number of leaves plant-1 were found in Barimoog-2 variety and the lowest in Binamoog-5 at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing. It was in agreement with the result of Thakuria and Saharia (1990) who reported that plant height differed among the varieties.

Interaction effect of varieties with bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on growth of summer mungbean was determined at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (Table 3). At 30 and 40 DAS, plant heights were not significant. However, at 30 and 40 DAS the highest number of plant heights was found in V1T2 and V1T4 and the lowest were found in V3T1, respectively. But, at 50 DAS, plant height varied significantly and ranged from 34.64 to 47.27 cm, where the highest plant height was found in V1T4 and the lowest in V3T1. On the other hand, the treatments combination showed significant influence on number of branches plant-1 at 30 DAS, but not in 40 and 50 DAS. At 30 DAS, the highest number of branches plant-1 was found in V1T2 and V3T2 (1.00), on the contrary, branches did not produce in V1T1, V1T3, V1T4 and V3T1. At 40 and 50 DAS, the highest number of branches plant-1 was found in V3T2 and the lowest in V1T1. Moreover, the treatments combination did not show any significant influence on number leaves plant-1 at 30, 40 and 50 DAS. At 30 DAS, the highest number of leaves plant-1 was found in V2T2 and the lowest in V1T1 and V1T3. At 40 and 50 DAS, the highest number of leaves plant-1 was found in V3T2 and the lowest in V1T1.

Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on nodule production, Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of summer mungbean was determined (Table 4). Bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators showed significant variation on number of effective nodules plant-1 and non-effective nodules plant-1 (except 50 DAS). The highest number of effective and non-effective nodules plant-1 was found in T2.

Table 1: Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on growth of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level, T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3

Table 2: Effect varieties on growth of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level

Table 3: Interaction effect of varieties with bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on growth of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level
T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3, V1 = Barimoog-2, V2 = Barimoog-4 and V3 = Barimoog-5

Table 4: Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on nodulation, Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of summer mungbean
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level
T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3

Table 5: Effect varieties on nodulation, Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Rrelative Growth Rate (RGR) of summer mungbean
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level

Similarly, Sangakhara and Marambe (1989) observed significantly higher nodulation in Vigna radiata by inoculatiing Rhizobium. Pandher et al. (1991) also observed increasing number of root nodules in Vigna radiatai cv. ML 131 by using Rhizobium strains. Besides, Kavathiya and Pandey (2000) found 69 nodules plant-1 by inoculating mungbean seed with Rhizobium. The treatments showed significant influence on CGR but not in Relative Growth Rate (RGR).

Table 6: Interaction effect of varieties, and bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on nodulation, Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) of summer mungbean
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level
T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3, V1 = Barimoog-2, V2 = Barimoog-4 and V3 = Barimoog-5

Table 7: Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on dry matter production of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level
T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3

Table 8: Effect of varieties on dry matter production of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level

However, the highest CGR and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) was found in T3 and the lowest in control. Sudhakar et al. (1989) also observed that Rhizobium inoculation increased crop growth rate.

Effect of varieties on nodule production, CGR and RGR of summer mungbean was determined (Table 5). The varieties showed significance influence on all these parameters. The highest number of effective and non-effective nodules plant-1, CGR and RGR was found in Barimoog-5 variety and the lowest in Binamoog-2 variety at all counting dates.

Interaction effect of varieties with bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on nodule production, CGR and RGR of summer mungbean was determined (Table 6). The treatments combination showed significant influence on number of effective nodules plant-1 at 30 and 50 DAS, but not in 40. At 30 DAS, the highest number of effective nodules plant-1 was found in V3T2 (10.33) and the lowest in V1T1 and V2T4 (1.66). At 50 DAS, the highest number of effective nodules plant-1 was found in V3T2 (12.33) and the lowest in V1T3 (2.66).

Table 9: Interaction effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on dry matter production of summer mungbean at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
NS = Non significant, *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level
T1 = Control, T2 = Bio-fertilizer (Bradyrhizobium), T3 = IAA, T4 = GA3, V1 = Barimoog-2, V2 = Barimoog-4 and V3 = Barimoog-5

In case of non-effective nodules plant-1, the treatment showed significant variation at 30 and 40 DAS. At 30 DAS, the highest number of non-effective nodules plant-1 was found in V2T2 and V3T2 (3.33) and non-effective nodules did not produce V1T4. At 50 DAS, the highest number of non-effective nodules plant-1 was found in V3T2 (4.33) and the lowest in V1T3 (0.66). Only at 30 DAS, the treatments showed significant variation on nodule dry weight plant-1, where the highest was found in V2T2 and V3T2 (10.00 mg) and the lowest in V1T1 (1.60 mg). The treatment showed significant variation on CGR and RGR. The highest crop growth rate was found in V3T2 (10.03 g m-2d-1), which is statistically identical to V3T3 and V3T4 and the lowest in V1T1 (6.02 g m-2d-1). The highest relative growth rate was found in V1T3 (0.051 g m-2d-1), which is statistically identical to V3T1 and V3T2 and the lowest in V2T1 and V2T4 (0.036 g m-2d-1).

Effect of bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on leaf, root, shoot, nodule and total dry weight plant-1 of summer mungbean was determined at 30, 40 and 50 DAS (Table 7). Bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators showed significant influence on leaf, root, shoot, nodule and total dry weight plant-1 in all counting dates. At 30 DAS, plant height varied from 0.87 to 1.29 g, where the highest in T2 and the lowest in control. But, at 40 and 50 DAS, the highest leaf dry weight plant-1 was found in T3 and T4, respectively and the lowest in control. The highest root dry weight plant-1 was found in T3 and the lowest in control in all counting dates. This result is identical to Begum (1989) who reported that inoculation with Rhizobium increased root dry weight than the control. In contrast, at 30, 40 and 50 DAS, the highest shoot dry weight plant-1 were found in T2, T3 and T4, respectively and the lowest in control. Bhuiya et al. (1986) found higher shoot and nodule dry weight of mungbean by the inoculation of Rhizobium strains. Bhuiyan et al. (1998) stated that inoculation with Rhizobium increased nodule dry weight. On the other hand, the highest nodule and total dry weight plant-1 was found in T2 and the lowest in control in all counting dates. Deotale et al. (1989) also observed that seed treatment with 100 ppm GA3 increase total dry matter of soybean. Besides, Takano et al. (1995) reported that IAA and GA3 increased total dry matter in faba bean.

Effect varieties on leaf, root, shoot, nodule and total dry weight plant-1 of summer mungbean were determined at 30, 40 and 50 DAS (Table 8). Varieties showed significant variation on leaf, root, shoot, nodule and total dry weight plant-1 in all counting dates. The highest leaf, root, shoot, nodule and total dry weight plant-1 were found in Barimoog-5 variety and the lowest in Binamoog-2 at 30, 40 and 50 DAS.

Interaction effect of varieties with bio-fertilizer and plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) on leaf, root, shoot and total dry weight plant-1 of summer mungbean was determined at 30, 40 and 50 DAS (Table 9). The treatment showed significant variation on leaf dry weight plant-1 at 30 and 40 DAS. At 30 DAS, the highest leaf dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T2 (1.75 mg) and the lowest in V1T1 and V1T4 (0.77 mg). At 40 DAS, the highest leaf dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T3 (3.91 mg) and the lowest in V1T1 (2.22 mg). The treatment showed significant variation on root dry weight plant-1 in all counting dates. At 30 DAS, the highest root dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T2 (0.10 mg) and the lowest in V2T1 (0.07 mg). At 40 and 50 DAS, the highest root dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T2 and the lowest in V1T1. The treatment showed significant variation on shoot dry weight plant-1 only at 50 DAS, where the highest shoot dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T4 (2.90 mg) and the lowest in V1T1 (1.28 mg). But, the treatment did not show significant variation on total dry weight plant-1. However, at 30 DAS, the highest total dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T2 (1.70 mg) and the lowest in V1T1 and V1T4 (1.08 mg). At 40 and 50 DAS, the highest total dry weight plant-1 was found in V3T4 and the lowest in V1T1.

From the above findings, it can be concluded that bio-fertilizer was better than plant growth regulators (IAA and GA3) for the growth of summer mungbean. However, GA3 and IAA found better than control. Among the varieties, Binamoog-5 performed better than Binamoog-2 and Binamoog-4.

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