Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Principal Crops in the Gargar Region, Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran
S. Boroomand Nasab,
Here a land suitability evaluation study for key productions
of the region, including wheat, alfalfa, maize and barley, covering an
area of 15831 ha was carried out in the region. Using the findings of
the semi-detailed soil studies for this area, 2 soil families and 8 soil
series in 2 physiographic units was identified. Physiologic requirements
of each crop were also determined and rated based upon the proposed methods
(Parametric methods and Simple limitation method). Qualitative evaluation
was carried out by means of simple limitation and parametric methods (Storie
and Root Square Method) and comparing land and climate characteristics
with crop needs. The index obtained for barley, wheat and alfalfa was
higher in comparison to that developed for maize. Limiting factors in
different crop yield in the region along with climatic variables included
soil physical properties, especially its carbonate contents, soil salinity
and drainage. From the two methods used i.e., simple limitation and parametric
methods (Storie and Square root methods), the latter (Square root methods)
produced more realistic results in respect to the existing conditions
of the region.
Considering the rapid growth of the world populations, which is in its turn
a limiting factor to the arable lands around the world, the dire need for effective
and efficient application of the croplands have been felt more than ever. Sustainable
agriculture would be achieved if lands be categorized and utilized based upon
their different uses (FAO, 1983, 1984).
Qualitative evaluation of the land suitability consists of determination of
the land use for particular applications regardless of yield fulfillment and
socio-economic issues (FAO, 1976, 1983,
1984, 1985). In this view, FAO (Food
and Agriculture Organization) took a stride in its Soils Bulletins No. 32, 42,
48, 52 and 55 by introducing various methodologies based upon the above framework.
In their research in the Province of Ben Slimane, Morocco, Yasmina
et al. (2001) carried out the qualitative land evaluation for crop
production and fruit-bearing trees under rainfed and irrigated conditions. By
the use of the parametric method, they showed that much of the croplands of
the region were in critical conditions the most limiting factors of which including
soil texture, soil depth and drainage. The main crops of the area were wheat,
barely, pea, bean and onion.
Ljusa and Pajovic (2002) investigated the Land suitability for rainfed agriculture
in the province of Larache, Morocco. The study area was characterized by crops
which were separated into three groups as food crops (maize, sugarcane, chickpea,
potato, tomato, green pepper, onion, sunflower and wheat), fodder crops (barley,
sorghum and alfalfa) and tree crops (citrus and olives), all with different
agricultural management. The methodology used for the evaluation refers to the
Sys et al. (1991) parametric method based on land
evaluation framework for rainfed agriculture. The main step of this methodology
was matching land characteristics against crop needs, giving in that way suitability
rating for each land characteristic. After suitability analysis for rainfed
agriculture, all crops could be separated into two groups; the first one where
there are crops good for this kind of agriculture and the second one can`t grow
without good moisture condition. In the first group are presents the main of
the difference crops: maize suitable in the whole agricultural part; sugarcane
suitable in the northern and southern reliefs; potato suitable in the southern
reliefs; sunflower suitable in the northern and southern reliefs; wheat suitable
in the northern reliefs and in the valley; barley suitable only in the northern
reliefs; citrus suitable in small parts in the northern and southern reliefs
and olives suitable in the valley and in the southern reliefs. For almost all
crops any kind of irrigation is necessary for increasing suitability class.
Other crops like chickenpea, tomato, green pepper, onion, sorghum and alfalfa
belong to group of crops, which are not recommended for rainfed agriculture.
Francesco et al. (2003) conducted land evaluation
of Thies Region, Senegal, for crops such as maize, sorghum, pea, sesames, etc.
The evaluation showed that the northern part of the region contained suitable
(S1) or relatively suitable (S2) lands for all the crops
under study while in northwest part along the shoreline the croplands were unsuitable
(N1 and N2) which was due to the domination of sandy soils.
The study also indicated that from 60387 ha of the studied lands, 12522 ha were
highly suitable (S1) for all the crops, 31540 ha were relatively
suitable (S1) and 16325 ha were totally unsuitable (N1
Sokol et al. (2004) used parametric (square root)
method and conducted a research on Oud Rmel Catchment of Tunisia on wheat, barely,
sorghum, potato, etc. The most influential limiting factor to the study area
were found to be land slope, coarse-grained soil texture of the area, dominant
existence of stones and aggregates, alkaline pH and the excessive amount of
the soil carbonate calcium.
Njiki et al. (2005) performed a land evaluation
project for Shouyang County in Shanxi Province, China, in which maize, soybean,
potato, sunflower, wheat as well as tree crops were studied. For this purpose,
land suitability classification was carried out using parametric method and
the consequent land suitability maps were prepared for crops under traditional
and mechanized cultivations.
Dunshan et al. (2006) investigated the land suitability
for agricultural crops in Danling county-Sichuan province, China-using the Sys`s
parametric evaluation system. The final aim of this evaluation is to facilitate
farmers in choosing the best crop to be cultivated (for small areas) and decision
makers in planning the rural development (for large areas). Several crops were
analyzed; in particular, the suitability for rice was compared to the one for
other summer crops like sweet potato and maize. A comparison between wheat and
rape was carried out since these are the more common crops to be rotated with
rice. The more widespread tree crops, like orange and loquat, were also included
in the analysis as well as mulberry tree which is becoming more widespread due
to the growth of the silk market. The evaluation of some cash crops that do
not currently grow in the agricultural landscape of Danling county was carried
out too in order to gain an indication about future productivity of the area.
Al-Areba et al. (2007) evaluated the land suitability
for key agricultural crops in Essaouira Province, Morocco. The principal crops
cultivated in the study area were barley, maize, onion and wheat which are the
main source of subsistence for the families in Essaouira. Olive is the
main perennial crop. The aim of this evaluation was to find out which parcels
of land may best support the different crops commonly grown by the local farmer
based on the physical and chemical properties of the soils in the study area
and recommend these results to the local stakeholder for an increase in yield.
Suitability maps were produced for each specific crop. In general, the evaluation
class for the crops suitability ranges from moderately suitable to permanently
not suitable. This is due to the different condition that the crops require
for their developments in the local area in question. Barley and wheat are the
most important crops for the economy and subsistence of the families in the
region since most families earn their livelihoods from the cultivation of these
crops. Livestock farming constitutes a significant financial reserve for the
majority of the farmers. The animals also take advantage of the leftovers of
cropfields after the harvest. These areas have limitations due to the presence
of coarse fragments and rock outcrops, poor drainage, steep slope, high CaCO3
content and texture which are considered to be important factors since they
determine the capacity for the penetration of the roots and the capacity to
retain water and nutrients.
The main objective of this research is to evaluate and compare land suitability
for principal crops (including wheat, alfalfa, maize and barley) based
on the parametric evaluation methods (Storie and Square root method) and
simple limitation methods for Gargar Plain, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted in an area about 15831 ha in Gargar Plain,
Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran during 2008. The study area is located
50 km northeast the city of Ahwaz, 31°38` to 31° 49` N and 48°57` to 49°07`
E. This area has an arid climate with a mean annual rainfall of 295 mm and minimum
and maximum relative humidity of 33 and 69%, respectively. The mean annual temperature
is 24.8 C°. The warmest month of the year is Tir (June-July) with a maximum
temperature of 46.1°C while the coldest month of the year is Dey (late October
to early January) when the minimum temperature is as low as 7.1°C. The annual
evapo-transpiration has been measured as 2150 mm (KWPA, 2005).
Geologically, the alluvial nature of the region has been developed into a sediment-dominated
environment and seems to belong to the sediments of a recent geological era
Common agricultures in the region include fall growth of irrigated wheat,
barley, maize and alfalfa. The agriculture in the area uses traditional
to semi-mechanized techniques and equipment. The power supply is usually
tractors. Gargar River is the main water resource to the region where
gravity irrigation is predominant. According to the available data, the
growth periods and development stages for the crops in the region include
initial stage, development stage, med-season stage and late season stage
|| Growth periods and development stages of crops in the
||Values of different characteristics in defining different
phases of each soil series
|*Data have been prepared and used as per the Plant Requirements
Table (Givi, 1997) and Guidelines for Description of
Soil Profiles (Iranian Soil and Water Research Institute Bulletin No. 758)
The properties of the above croplands to be considered in the present study
included climatic characteristics (including relative humidity, temperature
and sun radiation during different phases of plant growth), topography (including
soil slope) and soil (including soil depth, soil texture, gypsum and lime contents,
soil salinity (EC) and alkalinity (ESP), drainage and percentage of aggregates).
Also, Properties of soil fertility such as Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), percentage
of basic saturation (PBC), organic mater (OM%) and soil acidity (pH) were considered
in terms of soil fertility. Sys et al. (1991) suggested
that soil characteristics such as OM% and PBS do not require any evaluation
in the arid regions while clay CEC rate usually exceeds the plant requirement
without further limitation, thus, only soil acidity (pH) has been considered
sufficient in any assessment of the soil fertility.
According to the particular semi-detailed studies of the region, samples
were taken from each soil series profiles and laboratory analysis were
carried out based upon the conventional methods of the Iranian soil and
water research institute methodologies and the following properties were
measured by due methods: soil acidity by electrometric method by using
a pH meter, electrical conductivity by conductivity-meter, soil texture
by agitator and hydrometer, lime settlement rate by titration method,
gypsum by sediment measurement by using acetone, cation exchange capacity
by replacing of the exchangeable sodium ions with ammonium ions, mineral
carbon content by titration by using dichromate potassium and nitrate
Ferro ammonium sulfate (Bremmer and Mulvaney, 1992). Based upon the profile
description and laboratory analysis, that group of soils that had similar
properties and located in a same physiographic unit were considered as
a series of soils and were taxonomied to form a soil family as per to
keys to soil taxonomy 2006.
|| Qualitative land suitability classes for the different
In the present study almost totally 8 soil series were categorized and climatic,
topography and soil properties were prepared and ranked based upon Sys
et al. (1991) tables and proposed tables of the Iranian soil and
water research institute (Givi, 1997) and the Manual of
land classification for irrigation (Mahler, 1979) (Table
2). Climate data and those related to different stages of plant growth were
taken from Khuzestan soil and water research institute and physiological requirements
of each plant were extracted from tables prepared specifically for Iran (Givi,
1997). In evaluating of the qualitative land suitability, land properties
were compared with the corresponding plant requirements. In this stage, in order
to classify the lands the simple limitation and parametric methods (i.e., Story
and Square root methods) were used. Simple limitation method compares the plant
requirements with its corresponding qualitative land and climatic characteristics
and the most limiting characteristics defines land suitability class while in
parametric method land and climate characteristics are defined using different
ratings. The measurement of theses characteristics can be done using the followings:
where, I is the specified index and A, B, C... are different ratings
given for each property.
Square root method:
where, Rmin is the minimum rank.
By determining the specific land index and using the guidelines given by Sys
et al. (1991), the qualitative land suitability classes (Table
3) and the limiting factors of the plant growth in different soil series
for each plant were determined.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Eight soil series and fifteen series phases were derived from the semi-detailed
soil study of the area. The soil series are shown in Fig. 1
as the basis for any land evaluation practice. The soils of the area are of
Inceptisols and Entisols orders. Also, the soil moisture regimes are Aquic and
Ustic while the soil temperature regime is Hyperthermic (KWPA,
The ultimate evaluation of the qualitative land suitability for different
typical land uses using simple limitation and parametric methods are given
in Table 4-6 and land suitability
maps in Fig. 2-5. The results of the
physical evaluation showed a close correlation between the simple limitation
method and parametric method (Square root method); however, due to the
interaction of many-sided impacts of the land properties, using Storie
method in determining of the land index will lead to underestimation of
the land classes obtained compared to what gained through simple limitation
and square root methods. Hence yet, in some of the soil series there are
minor differences in land class evaluation by these methods for some plants
which are mainly due to the different estimation of the climatic, soil
and topographic characteristics of the region. Each is estimated individually
and differently in the Simple limitation method.
|| Soil map of the study area
In parametric method, however, a land index which contains the three
of the above properties is usually evaluated. For example, due to climatic
limitations, lime presence, drainage limitation and soil slope, a land
series 2 for maize belongs to class S2 in Simple limitation
method while in parametric method (Square root method) it goes to class
S3. Part of the differences in results can be explained by
the results of multiplication of the land suitability ratings by each
other used in calculating of the land index in parametric method. In this
method, due to the multiplication of different land suitability ratings
by each other and converting of the calculated climatic index to a climatic
rating, a lower class has been obtained compared to that developed by
limitation method. This can be clearly observed in land series of 1, 2,
3, 4 and 5 for maize.
||Results of the qualitative suitability evaluation of
different land series for crops under study using simple limitation
|Designates c, n, s, t and w represent the climatic limitations,
salinity and alkalinity, physical properties of soil, topography and
|| Results of the qualitative suitability evaluation of
different land series for crops under study using parametric method
|| Results of the qualitative suitability evaluation of
different land series for crops under study using parametric method
|| Land suitability map for wheat
|| Land suitability map for barley
Regarding the accuracy and several advantages of the parametric method
(Square root method) the results obtained by this method in the present
study will be reviewed briefly.
As the results of the Fig. 3-6 show,
the land series 6 and 8 with an area of 432 ha (2.73%) shows the best
land suitability for wheat, barley and alfalfa productions. Land series
7 with an area of 388 ha (2.45%) shows moderate suitability for all the
crops under study and series 1 and 4 with an area of 2624 ha (16.57%)
show an average suitability for wheat, barley and alfalfa. Land series
2 also with an area of 6201 ha (39.17%) shows an average suitability for
growing wheat and barley. Land series 5 with an area of 975 ha (6.16%)
shows moderate suitability for barley and series 6 and 8 with an area
of 432 ha (2.73%) shows an average suitability for maize. Land series
2 and 5 with an area of 7176 ha (45.33%) shows a low suitability for alfalfa
and series 1, 2 and 4 with an area of 8825 ha (55.74%) Exhibited a low
suitability for maize. Land series 5 with an area of 975 ha (6.16%) demonstrated
physically unsuitable for wheat and maize productions and finally series
3 with an area of 406 ha (2.57%) was determined physically unsuitable
for all the crops under study.
|| Land suitability map for maize
|| Land suitability map for alfalfa
|| The most suitable map for principal crops
The comparison of the land indexes for wheat, barley, alfalfa and maize,
Table 5 and 6 indicated that in land
series 6 and 8 growing wheat, barley and alfalfa was the most suitable
than maize. In land series coded 1, 4 and 7 growing alfalfa was the most
suitable compared with wheat, barley and maize. and finally, In land series
coded 2, 3 and 5 growing barley was the most suitable compared with other
productions. Figure 6 shows the most suitable map for
principal crops in the Gargar Region, by notation to land index (Li).
As seen from this map, the largest part of this plain was suitable for
barley and some part of this area was suitable for alfalfa, also, there
was not founded area that was suitable for maize.
Generally, the most important limiting factors in wheat and barley productions
in the region under study included physical properties of the soil especially
lime content and partly soil texture and drainage. Briza et al.
(2001) also suggested that the most limiting factors of the land suitability
in the Province of Ben Slimane, Morocco, in wheat and barley productions
included physical characteristics such as soil texture, soil depth and
The major limiting factors in maize production are low relative humidity and
high n/N ratio during the plant growth, lime content among the soil physical
properties, drainage and soil salinity. Limiting factors in producing alfalfa
also include lime content among the soil physical properties, salinity and drainage.
Osie (1993) introduced salinity and drainage as the most
limiting factors of alfalfa and maize productions in their land suitability
evaluations of southeastern lands of Nigeria.
Thanks to the Research and Standards Office for Irrigation and Drainage
Networks of KWPA for Financial supports and all assistance.
Abdelkak, Y., M. Aghrod, N.A. Mohamed, E. Botte and Y. Briza et al., 2001. Land evaluation in the province of ben slimane, Morocco. Proceedings of the 21st Course Professional Master Remote Sensing and Natural Resource Evaluation, November 10, 2000-June 22, 2001, Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, Italy, pp: 1-148.
Adel, A.A., A.S.A. Salami, A. Ouafae, B. Rigobert, D. Laura and G. Gebremeskel et al., 2007. Land evaluation in essaouira province Morocco. Proceedings of the 27th Professional Course on Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 6, 2006-June 22, 2007, Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, pp: 1-213.
Assam, G.A.N., A. Barberis, V.M.F. Calderon, S. Chimenti and W. Feng et al., 2005. Land evaluation in the shouyang county, shanxi province, China. Proceedings of the 25th Course Professional Master Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 8, 2004-June 23, 2005, Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, Italy, pp: 1-141.
Bezhani, S., F. Breda, M. Focacci, I. Mahjoub and R. Manrique et al., 2004. Land evaluation in the oued rmel catchment, Tunisia. Proceedings of the 24th Course Professional Master Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 10, 2003-June 23, 2004, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, Italy, pp: 1-149.
Bremner, J.M. and C.S. Mulvaney, 1982. Nitrogen-Total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Page, A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (Eds.). ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI., USA., pp: 595-624.
Chen, D., C. De Bari, S. De Santis, H. Deng and L.M. Di Lucchio et al., 2006. Land evaluation in danling county, sichuan province, China. Proceedings of the 26th Course Professional Master Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 7, 2005-June 23, 2006, Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, Italy, pp: 1-153.
FAO, 1983. Guidelines: Land evaluation for rainfed agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin, No. 52, FAO, Rome.
FAO, 1984. Guidelines: Land evaluation for forestry. FAO Forestry Paper No. 48. Rome, Italy.
FAO, 1985. Guidelines: Land evaluation for irrigated agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin, No. 55, FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5648e/x5648e00.htm.
FAO., 1976. A framework for land evaluation. FAO Soil Bulletin No. 32, Soil Resources Development and Conservation Service Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Francesco, A., B. Abu El-Ish, D. Pierre, D. Vladan, I. Mirjana, K. Rosa and Babacar et al., 2003. Land evaluation in the province of thies, senegal. Proceedings of 23rd Course Professional Master Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 8, 2002-June 20, 2003, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Istituto Agronomico Per L'oltremare, Italy, pp: 1-148.
Givi, J., 1997. Qualitative Evaluation of Land Suitability for Field and Fruit Crops. 1st Edn., Iranian Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
KWPA, 2005. Meteorology report of gargar plain. KWPA, Ahwaz, Iran.
KWPA, 2006. Semi-detailed soil study report of grgar plain. Ahwaz, Iran (In Persian). http//www.kwpa.com.
Mahler, P.J., 1979. Manual of Land Classification for Irrigation. 3rd Edn., Soil and Water Research Institute, Iran, pp: 103.
Mostafa, A.A.H., F. Bazzani, T. Bianchini, Y.F. Zaid and M. Foundi et al., 2002. Land evaluation in the province of larache, Morocco. Proceedings of the 22nd Course Professional Master Geomatics and Natural Resources Evaluation, November 12, 2001-June 21, 2002, IAO, Florence, Italy, pp: 1-152.
Osie, B.A., 1993. Evaluation of some soil in south estern Nigeria for arable crop production. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 24: 757-773.
Direct Link |
Sys, C., E.Van Ranst and J. Debaveye, 1991. Land evaluation, Part l, principles in land evaluation and crop production calculations. International Training Centre for Post-graduate Soil Scientists, University Ghent.