Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References

Research Article
Growth, Yield and Yield Traits of Rice Varieties in Rotation with Clover, Potato, Canola and Cabbage in North of Iran

Morteza Nasiri, Yousef Nicknejad, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Davood Barari Tari and Saleh Nasiri
 
ABSTRACT
In order to investigate the effects of second crop cultivation on growth yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran during 2005 and 2006. Tarom as a traditional variety and Fajr as a improve variety were used in this research. Clover, Potato, Canola and Cabbage were used as a second crop in rotation with rice. Second crop cultivation had not significant effect on yield and yield components of rice variety but second crop cultivation had significant effect on plant height at 1% probability level. Results indicated that rice varieties had different reaction to second crop cultivation. According to results, Rice-clover-Rice and Rice-fallow-Rice rotations systems for the best performance of rice yield in North of Iran`s paddy fields were recommended.
Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Morteza Nasiri, Yousef Nicknejad, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Davood Barari Tari and Saleh Nasiri, 2008. Growth, Yield and Yield Traits of Rice Varieties in Rotation with Clover, Potato, Canola and Cabbage in North of Iran. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7: 495-499.

DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2008.495.499

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2008.495.499

INTRODUCTION

Crop residue is a vital natural resource for conserving and sustaining soil productivity. It is the primary substrate for replenishment of soil organic matter. Upon mineralization, crop residue supplies essential plant nutrients (Walters et al., 1992). Additionally, residue incorporation can improve physical and biological conditions of the soil and prevent soil degradation (Nymborg et al., 1995). Annual rice-wheat double crop systems occupy 21 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic plains of south Asia (Bronson et al., 1998). The benefits of sequestering soil organic amendments and crop residue and including legumes in crop rotations have been well documented in the temperate regions. Although many green manuring studies have been conducted with rice in Asia (Buresh et al., 1993; Yadvinder-Singh et al., 1992) few studies have looked at comparative effect of crop residue management with or without fertilizer N and legume green manure on crop yields and sequestering soil organic carbon. On-station data from long-term experiments in China (Byerlee, 1992), Nepal (Regmi, 1994) and India (Nambiar, 1995) indicate that productivity of rice and wheat has been declining. Inadequate or imbalanced nutrient management and decreasing sequestering soil organic are probably the factors in the declining trend in this cropping system. Over the past 20 years production in rice-second crop system has kept pace with increased population but now there are signs of stagration or decline in yield (Duxbury et al., 2000; Yadave et al., 2000). Several researchers have studied Long-term rice-wheat experiments in south Asia but most studies were restricted to simple yield trend analysis (Nambiar, 1995; Yadave et al., 2000; Dawe et al., 2000; Duxbury et al., 2000). More than one third of the human population rely on rice for their daily sustenance, making it the most important of the world`s food crops (Brennane et al., 1994). The global rice production needs to be increased by 75% by 2020 to feed the world rice consumer (Donald, 1994). Since arable land is becoming limited improving productivity and increasing cropping intensity by adopting rice cultivation with second crops in potentially irrigated areas will be required to meet the food demand of the regions increasing population (Regmi, 1994). There are many reports about rice-second crop-rice rotation systems in many tropical Asian countries. The analysis of some of these experiments have shown declining rice second crop yields (Cassman et al., 1995; Yadave et al., 2000; Duxbury et al., 2000). When a yield decline is maintained (Dawe et al., 2000), the major causes suggested as a gradual decline in the supply of soil organic matter content, atmospheric pollution, pest and disease in festations and negative changes in the biochemical and physical composition of soil organic matter (Nambiar, 1995; Yadave et al., 2000). Also second crop cultivation maybe had positive effect on rice rotation. For first time second crop cultivation had been used at Iran`s paddy field in 1965 (Fallah, 2000). In the first years, foliage cops and oil seed crops were used as a second crop. Ofori and Stern (2001) showed that leguminous crop had positive effect on rice grain yield. Fransis (2002) indicated that canola is not a good crop in rotation with rice because it supply much of soil food material. Different experiments had been showed that potato and clover could be a good crop as a second crop. Different experiments had been showed that Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrium) had positive effect on rice yield. Rice yield with canola rotation is lower than with potato rotation. Handand and Dhillon (1993) showed the positive effects of Trifolium alexandrium as a green manure on rice yield, they reported that rice yield in the plots with green manure was more than in fallow plots. Know about the positive or negative effect of different plants on rice growth is very important.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Second crop cultivation in paddy field is a way of increasing farmer,s income. Some second crops like clover, potato, canola and cabbage are usual in north of Iran. For this case this experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol) located in North of Iran (52°22` N, 36° 28` E, Altitude 28 m) during 2005 and 2006. After rice harvesting. The field was prepared for second crops cultivation. clover, potato, canola and cabbage were selected as a second crop. The soil total N and organic carbon contents were low, the available P and exchangeable K contents are medium (Table 1) cultivation of second crop was done as a experiment in Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. Standard cultural practices like irrigation and weeding were carried out until each second crop was mature . After harvesting all of second crops the field was prepared for rice varieties cultivation. The plots related to second crop were divided in two sections and rice cultivation was done as a experiment in split plot in basis of Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. Tarom variety as a traditional variety with yield average of 4 t ha-1 and Fajr variety as a improved variety with yield average of 6 t ha-1 were selected for this research. 100 kg N ha-1, 50 kg P ha-1 and 70 kg K ha-1 were used in each plot. Cultural practices like weeding and irrigation were done in appropriate time. Rice varieties were transplanted in 20x20 cm planting space. Six hills (excluding border hills) were randomly selected from each plot prior to harvest for measured rice components. Grain yield was determined from harvest area of 5 m2 adjusting to 14% moisture content. Harvesting of rice varieties were done at end of August All statistical tests (simple and combined analysis) were done using statistically analysis system (SAS, 1996) and mean value were compared by Duncan Multiple Rang Test (DMRT).

Table 1: Physical and chemical properties of the top soil in the experimental field at Iran Rice Research Institute

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results showed that year had significant effect on panicle length, 1000 grains weight, plant height and yield (Table 2). Total tiller influenced significantly by interaction effect of year x second crop at 5% probability level. Results indicated that variety had significant effect on plant height at 0.01 probability level (Table 2). Plant height, total tiller and yield influenced significantly by interaction of varietyxyear at 0.01 probability level. The most panicle length (27.7) and 1000 grains weight (22.4) were produced in 2005. Also the most plant height (138.6) and yield (4585.4) were obtained in 2006 (Table 3). According to results (Table 4) the most tiller numbers were produced after clover (19) and fallow (19.4) also the least tiller number was obtained after cultivated of canola (16.8). The most panicle length (28.5), total grain (153.4), total tiller (19.7) and yield (4566) were produced in Fajr variety (Table 5). Results showed that in interaction effect of fallow and Fajr variety the most total tiller (21.1) was produced. The most grain yield (5192) interaction effect of variety and year was produced in Fajr variety in year 2006 (Table 8).

Results showed that second crop cultivation in rice rotation had not significant effect on panicle length in each two years (Table 7). Panicle length usually not affected by environmental conditions and it seemed be a genetically characteristic (Hatami, 2002). Tiller number is a important component in grain yield of rice varieties (Islam and Hossain, 2002). Any factor that influenced this component can change rice yield (Hoseini, 2003). In this research, the tiller number of varieties were least after use of canola in paddy field. In this experiment canola had a negative effect on Tarom tiller number more than Fajr tiller number (Table 6). Analysis of some of these experiments have shown declining rice second crop yields (Cassman et al., 1995; Yadave et al., 2000; Duxbury et al., 2000) when a yield decline is maintained (Dawe et al., 2000), the major causes suggested as a gradual decline in the supply of soil organic matter content, atmospheric pollution pest and disease in festations and negative changes in the biochemical and physical composition of soil organic matter (Nambiar, 1995; Yadave et al., 2000). Fajr variety was seemed more sensitive to pests and diseases than Tarom variety. According to these results, Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum ) can be a good second crops in rice rotation. Rodelas et al. (2004) got almost the similar results. They indicated that faba bean can be good crop in rotation with other crops because of its nitrogen fixation role. Yield of Fajr variety in 2005 is least than 2006 because in 2005 these varieties cultivated late. Tarom variety yield was not decreased, because this variety had a difference with Fajr variety in growth period. For these varieties, Rice-Clover-Rice and Rice-Fallow-Rice rotation systems for the best performance of rice yield in north of Iran,s paddy field were recommended.

Table 2: Mean squares of rice yield and yield components in rotation with second crop
*: Significant; **: Highly significant; ns: Non significant

Table 3: Mean comparison of rice yield and yield components in different year
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT

Table 4: Mean comparison of rice yield and yield components in different treatments
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT

Table 5: Mean comparison of rice yield components in different varieties
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT

Table 6: Interaction effect of second crop cultivation and rice variety on yield and yield components of rice varieties
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT, a1 = Potato, a2 = Cabbage, a3 = Canola, a4 = Clover, a5 = Fallow, v1 = Tarom, v2 = Fajr

Table 7: Interaction effect of second crop cultivation and year on yield and yield components of rice varieties
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT

Table 8: Interaction effect of variety and year on yield and yield components of rice varieties
Means with similar letter(s) in each column are not significantly different at the 5% probability level according to DMRT

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Financial support by Rice Research Institute of Iran highly appreciated.

REFERENCES
Brennane, J.P., L.G. Lewin, G.R. Marshall and R.F. Reinke, 1994. An economic assessment of rice breeding in new South Wales. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 34: 889-894.
CrossRef  |  

Bronson, K.F., K.G. Cassman, R. Wassmann, D.C. Oik, M. Van Noord Wijk and D.P. Garrity, 1998. Soil Carbon Dynamics Indifferent Cropping Systems in Principal Ecoregions of Asia. In: Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil, Lal, R. et al. (Eds.). Adv. Soil. Sci., Crc Lewis Publishers, Boea Raton, FL., 35-57.

Buresh, R.J., D.P. Garrity, E.G. Castillo and T.T. Chua, 1993. Fallow and sesbania effects on response of transplanted lowland rice to urea. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 85: 801-808.
Direct Link  |  

Byerlee, D., 1992. Technical change, productivity and sustainability in irrigated cropping systems of South Asia: Emerging issues. J. Int. Dev., 4: 477-496.
CrossRef  |  

Cassman, K.G., S.K. Detta, D.C. Oik, J. Alcantara, M. Samson, J. Descalsota and M.A. Dizon, 1995. Yield Decline and the Nitrogen Economy of Long-term Experiments on Continuous, irrigated Rice Systems in the Tropics. In: Soil management adv. Soil science, Lal, R. and B.A. Stweart (Eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, 181-222.

Dawe, D., A. Dobermann, P. Moya, S. Abdulrachman and B. Singh et al., 2000. How widespread are yield declines in long-term rice experiments in Asia?. Field Crop Res., 66: 175-193.
CrossRef  |  

Donald, D.J., 1994. Temperate rice technology for the 21st century, An Australian example. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 34: 877-888.

Duxbury, J.M., I.P. Abrol, R.K. Gupta and K.E. Bronson, 2000. Analysis of Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments with Rice-Wheat Rotations in South Asia. In: Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments with Rice-Wheat Rotations in South Asia, Abrol, I.P. et al. (Eds.). Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series No. 6. Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, India, pp: 7-22.

Fallah, V., 2000. Effect of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) on rice yield. M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Fransis, F., 2002. Biological efficiencies in multiple- cropping systems. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 25: 739-747.

Hamidul Islam, Md. and S.M. Altaf Hossain, 2002. Effect of fertilization and planting density on the yield of two varieties of fine rice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 5: 513-516.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Handand, H.S. and N.S. Dhillon, 1993. Influence of green manures on P use efficiency in rice. Int. Rice Res. Newslett., 12: 18-25.
Direct Link  |  

Hatami, H., 2002. Effect of transplanting date, planting density and fertilization on rice yield. M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Hoseini, S.S., 2003. Effect of agronomical treatments on yield and yield components of rice promising line. M.Sc. Thesis, Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran.

Nambiar, K.K.M., 1995. Soil fertility and crop productivity under long term fertilizer use in India. Indian Council for Agricultural Research. New Delhi, India.

Nymborg, M., E.D. Solberg, S.S. Malhi and R.C. Izaurralde, 1995. Fertilizer N, Crop Residue and Tillage Alter Soil C and N Content in a Decade. In: Soil Management and Green House Effect, Lal, R. et al. (Eds.). Adv. Soil Sci. Crc Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp: 93-99.

Ofori, F. and W.R. Stern, 1987. Cereal-legume intercropping systems. Adv. Agron., 41: 41-90.
Direct Link  |  

Regmi, A.D., 1994. Long-term effects of organic amendments and mineral fertilizers on soil fertility in a Rice-Wheat cropping system in Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines.

Rodelas, B.J., M.V. Gonzalez, M.V. Martinez and C.V. Salmeron, 2004. Influence of Rhizobium/ Azospirillum combined inoculation on mineral composition of faba bean (Faba vulgaris). J. Biol. Soil Fert., 29: 165-169.

SAS, 1996. 22-SAS/STAT user,s guide, version 6.12. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.

Walters, T., M.S. Aulakh and J.W. Doron, 1992. Effects of soil aeration, legume residue and soil texture on transformations of macro and micronutrients. Soils Sci., 153: 100-107.

Yadave, R.L., B.S. Dwiredi and P.S. Pandey, 2000. Rice-Wheat cropping system: Assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer inputs. Field Crops Res., 65: 15-30.
Direct Link  |  

Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh and C.S. Khind, 1992. Nutrient transformations in soils amended with green manures. Adv. Soil Sci., 20: 237-309.

©  2014 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract