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Response of Two Genotypes of Sugarcane to Different Planting Patterns

Muhammad Yousaf, Amir Ahmed and Mahboob Akhtar
 
ABSTRACT
The study pertaining to response of two genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) to different planting patterns was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Two sugarcane genotypes SPSG-26 and Co-1148 were sown in six planting patterns, i.e., 100cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches (P1), 100cm spaced 60cm wide double-row ditches (P2), 100cm spaced 90cm wide triple-row ditches (P3), 100cm spaced 100 x 100 cm2 pits (P4), 90cm spaced single-row strips (P5), and 90cm spaced double-row strips 30/90cm (P6). Sugarcane genotypes and planting patterns were differed significantly with respect to number of millable canes, cane length, inter-nodal length, weight per stripped cane, tops weight, stripped cane yield, sucrose content and commercial cane sugar (CCS%). The maximum yield of 99.64 t ha -1 was obtained from the variety Co-1148 planted in 100 cm spaced 100 x 100 cm2 pits and significantly high commercial cane sugar (14.75%) was found in SPSG-26 planted in 90cm spaced double-row strips 30/90cm (P6).
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  How to cite this article:

Muhammad Yousaf, Amir Ahmed and Mahboob Akhtar , 2002. Response of Two Genotypes of Sugarcane to Different Planting Patterns. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1: 346-348.

DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2002.346.348

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2002.346.348

Introduction

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a prominent crop of family Poaceae. It is originally a crop of tropics but its cultivation has been extended rapidly over the subtropics between the latitude of 30o North and 35o South. Sugarcane is an important and highly valuable crop of Pakistan. It plays an important role in the economic uplift of the grower and the country at large. It supplies over 60% of world sugar requirement. In addition, it provides raw material for certain subsidiary products like chipboard, hardboard, paper, etc. In addition its molasses is used in the preparation of animal feed and press-mud as manure. In Pakistan, sugarcane is cultivated on an area of about 1.056 million hectares with total annual production of 53.104 million tones canes, thus giving and average stripped cane yield of 50.3 t ha-1 (Anonymous, 1999), which is far below the potential yield of our existing cultivars. The main reasons for low yield are poor management practices, low yielding varieties and inappropriate planting methods.

In addition to other factors contributing to increased sugarcane production, use of high yielding varieties plays a remarkable role (Ahmad, 1990). Adoption of improved varieties not only increases cane tonnage per hectare but also enhances sugar production. Since yield potential of varieties in hand is deteriorating day by day due to segregation, susceptibility to diseases, insects admixture and changes in edaphic and climatic environments, it is essential to select the varieties with high yield potential and wide range of adaptability. Planting pattern is the key component of sugarcane agro-technology because it is the primary determinant of plant density of the crop. Conventional method of planting sugarcane in 60-cm spaced single-row restricts sugarcane yield to a considerable extent (Shafi et al., 1990). Some preliminary studies have indicated that crop planted in pits or two-row strips gives better yield than that raised by conventional planting of sugarcane in closely-spaced single-row on flat (Gill, 1995). Pit and ditch plantations of sugarcane not only facilitate inter tillage practices and effective light penetration into the crop canopy but are also helpful in maintaining the desired plant density. These newly developed patterns have been reported to give substantial increase in cane yield (Yadav, 1992). Since there is a paucity of information pertaining to the performance of different genotypes of sugarcane crop to the newly developed plantation techniques.

This study was planned to investigate the response of two genotypes of sugarcane to different planting patterns under the agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad.

Materials and Methods

The proposed study was conducted on a sandy-clay loam soil at the Agronomic Research Area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the year 1998-99. The experiment was laid out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement. The sugarcane genotypes (Co-1148 and SPSG-26) were sown in six planting patterns (P) viz., 100 cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches (P1), 100 cm spaced 60cm wide double-row ditches (P2), 100 cm spaced 90cm wide triple-row ditches (P3), 100 cm spaced 100x100 cm2 pits (P4), 100 cm spaced single-row strips (P5) and 90 cm spaced double-row strips 30/90 cm (P6) by keeping genotypes in main plots, while the planting patterns were randomized in subplots. The net plot size was variable for each treatment; however, uniform area from each treatment was harvested for recording the yield data. Ditches were made 30 cm deep while pits were dug to a depth of 60 cm and then refilled to the level of 45 cm with the same soil along with 5 kg well rotten FYM per pit. The crop was fertilized @ 150-100-100 Kg NPK ha-1 in the form of urea, SOP and SSP, receptively. The all quantity of phosphorus, potash and half nitrogen was applied at the sowing, while the remaining half dose of nitrogen was applied at the completion of tillers.

All other agronomic practices were kept uniform for all the treatments throughout the growing period. For data collection, 10 normal plants from each treatment were selected for various parameters, number of millable canes m2, cane length (m), cane diameter (cm), number of inter-nodes per cane, inter-nodal length (cm) weight per stripped cane (Kg), yield (t ha-1) and sucrose content (%) were recorded. The data collected was analyzed statistically by using Fisher’s analysis of variance technique and treatment means was compared by using LSD test at 0.05 probability level (Steel and Torrie, 1984).

Results and Discussion

The sugarcane genotypes differed significantly with respect to number of millable canes, can length, inter-nodal length, weight per stripped cane, stripped cane yield, and commercial cane sugar. However, cane diameter and number of inter-nodes per cane showed non-significant differences (Table 1).

The genotype Co-1148 performed better regarding cane yield as compared to the variety SPSG-26, Significantly higher stripped cane yield of 93.13 t ha-1 was obtained from the genotype Co-1148 as compared to the genotype SPSG-26 that produced 83.25 t ha-1 of stripped cane yield (Table 1). Anjum (1991) and Javed (1994) have also reported differences in cane yield among varieties. Similarly the interaction between two factors was also found to be highly significant. Co-1148 planted in 100cm spaced 100 x 100 cm2 pits (V2 x P4) produced maximum stripped cane yield (99.64 t ha-1) and SPSG-26 planted in 100cm spaced 90cm wide triple-row ditches (G1 x P3) produced minimum stripped cane yield of 73.60 t ha-1 (Table 1). On the other hand genotype SPSG-26 showed excellent performance in quality parameters.

Table 1: Comparisons of means of yield and yield components of two varieties of sugarcane as effected by different planting patterns
Any two means not sharing a common letter differ significantly at 5% probability level

It is evident from the Table 1 that genotypes differ significantly in sucrose content and the genotype SPSG-26 produced canes of maximum sucrose content (19.69 %) than Co-1148, which produced sucrose content (18.53%). These results are in agreement with Anjum (1991). The interaction between varieties and planting patterns was significant. SPSG-26 planted in 100 cm spaced 90 cm wide triple-row ditches (GI x P3) produced maximum sucrose content (20.48%), where as Co-1148 planted in 100cm spaced 60 cm wide double-row ditches (G2 x P2) produced minimum sucrose content (17.99%).

The results regarding commercial cane sugar indicated highly significant differences among two genotypes (Co-1148 and SPSG-26). Significantly higher commercial cane sugar (14.90%) was found in SPSG-26 than Co-1148, which gave 13.49% commercial cane sugar (Table 1). These results are in conformity with those of Hafeez (1993) and Ali (1994), who also observed different commercial cane sugar in various varieties. It is obvious from the results that genotypes Co-1148 showed excellent performance regarding quantity parameters while SPSG-26 regarding quality parameters.

Different planting patterns showed highly significant differences with respect to number of millable canes, cane length, weight per stripped cane, stripped cane yield, inter-nodal length and commercial cane sugar (Table 1). There were highly significant differences among different planting patterns with respect to yield Kg ha-1. Sugarcane planted in 100cm spaced 100x100 cm2 pits produced highest stripped cane yield of 97.60 t ha-1 as compared to the other planting patterns (Table 1). On the contrary the lowest cane yield of 83.16 t ha-1 was produced in 100 cm spaced 60cm wide double-row ditches. Above results concur with the findings of Sharma (1982) and Yadav (1992). The interaction between varieties and planting patterns was found to be significant and Co-1148 raised in 100cm spaced 100 x 100 cm2 wide pits (G2 x P4) produced maximum stripped cane yield of 99.64 t ha-1 (Table 1) and SPSG-26 planted in 100 cm spaced 90cm wide triple-row ditches (G1 x P3) produced minimum striped cane yield of (73.60 t ha-1).

The results regarding number of millable cane (m2) showed significant differences among different planting patterns. The highest number of millable canes (11.85 m2) were obtained form the crop grown in 100 cm spaced 100 x100 cm2 pits. On the contrary, the crop raised in 100cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches produced the lowest number of millable canes (10.10 m2). Differential effect of different planting patterns on the number of millable canes m2 might be attributed to the varying germination count and tillering. Ricaud and Cochran (1980) and Nazir et al. (1988) have also reported different number of canes per unit area at different planting patterns. The interaction between genotypes and planting patterns was found to be significant and Co-1148 raised in 100 cm spaced 100 x 100 cm2 wide pits (G2 x P4) produced maximum number of millable canes of 12.95 m2. While SPSG-26 planted in 90 cm spaced 60cm wide double-row strips (G1 x P6) produced minimum number of millable canes of 10.74m2 (Table 1). As regard cane length the results also showed significant differences among planting patterns. The sugarcane planted in 100cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches produced longer canes measuring 2.82 m. In contrast the shortest canes of 2.42 m were produced by crop raised in 90cm spaced double–row strips. These findings are in agreement with those of Jatala (1976). Interaction between genotypes and planting patterns was also found to be significant, SPSG-26 planted in 100cm spaced 60 cm wide single-row ditches (G1 x P2) produced longer cane of 3.28 m, while Co-1148 planted in 90cm spaced double-row strips (G2 x P6) produced smaller canes of 2.37 m (Table 1).

The results regarding cane diameter showed non-significant differences among different planting patterns. These results concur with the findings of Akbar (1984), that reported that different row spacing had no significant effect on cane diameter. Similarly interaction between genotypes and planting patterns was also found to be non-significant (Table 1). The results of number of inter-nodes per cane had non-significant differences among different planting patterns. Interaction between two factors was found to be highly significant. The genotype SPSG-26 planted in 100 cm spaced 30 cm wide single-row ditches (G1 x P1) produced maximum number of inter-nodes per cane (27.82) where as Co-1148 planted in 100cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches (G2 x P1) produced minimum number of inter-nodes per cane (22.81). The data presented in Table 1 indicate that planting patterns had significant effect on inter-nodal length. The maximum inter-nodal length of 11.10 cm was recorded in the crop raised in 100 cm spaced 30 cm wide single-row ditches. While the crop raised in all other planting patterns remains at par with one another. The interaction between two factors was also found to be non-significant (Table 1).

The data of weight per stripped cane revealed that there were highly significant differences among the various planting patterns. The crop planted in 100 cm spaced 90 cm wide triple-row ditches produced cane of maximum weight of 1.33 Kg. The interaction between two factors was also found to be significant. The genotype SPSG-26 planted in 100-cm spaced 90cm wide triple-row ditches (G1 x P3) produced canes of maximum weight of 1.44 Kg (Table 1) where as Co-1148 when planted in 90cm spaced single-row strips (G2 x P5) produced canes of minimum weight (1.07 Kg).

The results regarding C.C.S% showed significant differences among various planting patterns. The maximum C.C.S of 14.75% was obtained from crop planted in 90cm spaced double-row strips. On the contrary the minimum C.C.S. (12.78%) was found in case of crop planted in 100cm spaced 30cm wide single row ditches. These findings are in agreement with Mali and Singh (1985). The interaction between genotypes planting patterns was highly significant. SPSG-26 planted in 100 x 100cm2 pits (G1 x P4) produced high C.C.S of 15.48% (Table 1) and Co-1148 planted in 100cm spaced 30cm wide single-row ditches (V2 x P4) produced minimum C.C.S. of 12.75% (Table 1). In conclusion variety SPSG-26 perform better under Faislabad conditions regarding quality parameter and Co-1148 regarding stripped cane yield. In planting patterns pit plantation and 90cm spaced double-row strips were equally superior to other planting techniques under study, for harvesting the maximum sugar and cane yield per unit area.

REFERENCES
Ahmad, I., 1990. Study on comparative ratooning performance of some new and old varieties of sugarcane. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Akbar, M., 1984. Studies on inter cropping in autumn ratoon cane planted in different geometrical patterns. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculrure, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Ali, D., 1994. A study on comparative ratooning performance of some new and old varieties of sugarcane. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Anjum, T., 1991. Ratooning potential of autumn sugarcane as affected by pits and flat planting. M.Sc. Thesis, Departmant of Agrononmy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Anonymous, 1999. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Economic Wing, Islamabad.

Gill, M.B., 1995. Physio-agronomic studies on flat versus pits plantation of autumn and spring sugarcane. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Hafeez, M.A., 1993. Ratooning potential of different cultivars of sugarcane in autumn. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Jatala, M.A., 1976. The effect of shape and size of nutritional area on the yield and quality of sugarcane. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Javed, M.S., 1994. A study on comparative ratooning performance of some sugarcane varieties. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy University Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Mali, A.L. and P.P. Singh, 1985. Quality of sugarcane as influenced by varieties in relation to varying row spacing. Indian Sugar, 35: 451-456.

Nazir, M.S., I.A. Faqeer, G. Ali, R. Ahmad and T. Mahmood, 1988. Studies on planting and intercropping in autumn sugarcane. Gomal Univ. Res. J., 8: 57-64.

Ricaud, R. and B.J. Cochran., 1980. Methods of planting sugarcane for sugar and biomass production in Louisiana. Proc. 17th Int. Cong. Soc. Sugarcane Technol., 1: 302-310.

Shafi, M., M.L. Shah, T. Mahmood, S. Afghan and S.H. Shah, 1990. Cane yield and quality of sugarcane as influenced by different planting patterns. Pak. Sugar J., 4: 3-4.

Sharma, R.A., 1982. Effect of premonsoon irrigation and inter-row spacing on yield and quality of sugarcane. JNKVV Res. J., 16: 136-141.

Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie., 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., Singapore.

Yadav, R.L., 1992. Effect of set size and row arrangement on yield and quality of sugarcane. Cooperative Sugar, 23: 667-670.

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