Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period
Prabhat K. Nema
Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content) of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C), the decrease in overall acceptability of both the pulp was observed with increase in storage period. However, blending of both the pulp in different ratios influenced the organoleptic characters as well as the qualitative characters of the blended pulp.
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the fourth most important fruit crop after
mango, banana and citrus in India and occupies the area of 178 thousand ha and
production 1975 thousand MT with average productivity of 11.1 MT ha-1
fruit per year in 2007-08 (Indian Horticulture Database,
2008). It is considered as one of the exquisite, nutritionally valuable
and remunerative crop. The fruit is an excellent source of ascorbic acid (260
mg/100 g), pectin (1.15%), minerals like phosphorous (23-27 mg/100 g), calcium
(14-30 mg/100 g) etc as well as vitamins like vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin,
pantothenic acid and niacin etc. (Bose et al., 1999).
Guava is normally consumed as fresh as desert fruit. It is also stewed and used
in sauce, ice-cream, butter, marmalade, chutney etc, but its diversified
utilization gives potential to combat malnutrition by developing innovative
and novel products which could be prepared from guava pulp as such and in combination
with other fruit pulp by blending.
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is the fifth most important crop in India,
which is cultivated in about 80 thousand ha of land and production of 2686 thousand
MT with average productivity of 33.4 MT ha-1 in 2007-08 (Indian
Horticulture Database, 2008). The fruits are excellent source of vitamin
A (2020 IU/100 g) next to mango (2500 IU/100 g) and also a rich source of other
vitamins like thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid. Papayas
(100 g) contains 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for Cu, 6-8% of the
DRI for Mg, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals (Wall,
2006). Unfortunately papaya fruit has not caught the fancy of the consumers
as much as it deserves, mainly because of its odour which is not highly appealing
and thus limits its commercial exploitation at processing levels whereas
guava emits a sweet aroma which is pleasant, refreshing and acidic in flavour.
Therefore, blending of these two fruits product could be an economic preposition
to utilize them profitably. There is good possibility of enhancing the flavour
and acceptability of papaya product by diversification i.e. by using blending
technology. Sharma et al. (2008) have prepared
ready to serve beverages from guava and papaya in different ratios and found
that RTS beverage prepared from 15% juice of 80: 20 blend of guava-papaya was
the best. Similarly an energy drinks from mixed tropical fruit was developed
by De Sousa et al. (2007). Kumar
et al. (2010) developed fruit leather by mixing 60% papaya and 40%
guava pulp which significantly resulted in a better overall rating for sensory
properties without impairing the nutritional and textural quality of the product.
Nip (1979) prepared drum-dried guava-taro and papaya-taro
flakes and carried out storage study at various temperatures and time intervals
to test their stability. Effects of storage temperature and time on the quality
of aseptically processed, bag-in-box packaged guava and papaya puree were investigated
by Chan and Cavaletto (1982).
As guava fruit have pulp soft to melting, white having very pleasant flavour with excellent quality can be mixed with papaya fruit having pulp blood red, good taste, to give a quality product after blending. This shows their pulp compatibility and suitability of blending and making mixed fruit products i.e. jam, jelly, leather, candy etc. thus it was planned to analyse quantitatively both guava and papaya pulp and the effect of blending ratio and storage period.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fully matured, firm ripe and healthy fruits of guava (cv. Allahabad Safeda)
and papaya (Taiwan hybrid) were selected for this study. Both the fruits were
collected from local farmers field near Agriculture College Indore, Madhya
Pradesh, India during 2006-07. For the experiment the guava pulp was prepared
as per the procedure shown and discussed in detail by Jain
and Asati (2004). For the preparation of papaya pulp matured and ripened
papaya fruits were peeled using stainless steel knife and then cut into small
pieces. Seeds and inner whitish layers were discarded manually. Papaya pieces
were crushed in a mixer and boiled with water for 30 min. During boiling it
was pressed with wooden pad. Straining of pulp was done with the help of stainless
steel sieve. Both guava and papaya pulp were again boiled for 30 min and cooled
to 30°C and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) was added at the rate of 750
ppm and the pulp was filled in airtight glass containers. The pulp was stored
in glass jars at low temperature (6±1°C) for 60 days. For the preparation
of blended pulp both the pulp were mixed in different ratios as shown in Table
4 and after blending it was boiled for 30 min and then cooled and KMS was
added at the rate of 750 ppm. All the samples were subjected to qualitative
The organoleptic character (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall
acceptability) and qualitative character (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid
content) were recorded for fresh fruit, both guava and papaya, pulp separately
and in blended form. Organoleptic quality parameters were determined by adopting
a nine-point hedonic scale (1= dislike extremely and 9 = like extremely) (Amerine
et al., 1965). A semi trained test panel of 10 judges did the sensory
evaluation. The total soluble solids in the pulp were measured with the help
of hand refractometer and pH of extracted pulp was measured using Elemer pH
meter after calibration of the instrument with standard buffer solutions (Jain
and Nema, 2007). The titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were determined
by AOAC (1995) methods. The data obtained in this study
were subjected to statistical analysis (Snedecor and Cochran,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The general quality characters of fresh guava and papaya fruit used in this
study are given in Table 1. It can be observed that guava
is rich in vitamin C and papaya in vitamin A, thus they can be blended to produce
a vitamin rich product. The pulp recovery is more in papaya fruit (78.0%) as
compared to the guava fruit (54.5%). Sandhu et al.
(2001) have reported guava pulp recovery upto 59.3% in Allahabad safeda
cultivar. The data of organoleptic quality attributes measured on 9-point hedonic
scale are presented in Table 2, it is evident from the data
that flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability rating was higher in
guava pulp (8.95, 9.00, 7.36, 7.72 at 0 day of storage, respectively) whereas
the colour rating was higher in papaya pulp (9.00 at 0 day of storage) as compared
to other fruit pulp. It was also observed that with the increase in storage
period there was decrease in the rating of all organoleptic quality characters
in both the fruit pulp. Jain and Asati (2004) have also
reported decrease in overall acceptability of guava with storage period. Similar
results were obtained by Harnanan et al. (1980)
and Baramanray et al. (1995). The decrease in
overall acceptability rating during storage is due to decrease in rating of
colour, flavour, taste and texture of the fruit pulp. Similarly, Chan
and Cavaletto (1982) have reported change in sensory quality of aseptically
processed guava and papaya puree during storage.
The values of qualitative parameters of guava and papaya pulp are presented
in Table 3 which indicates that TSS (%), acidity (%), ascorbic
acid content (mg/100 g) was higher in guava pulp (13.24, 0.46 and 182.6, respectively)
whereas, pH value (6.17) was higher in papaya pulp at 0 day of storage. It was
also observed that with increase in the storage period, an increase in the value
of TSS and acidity was noticed in both the fruit pulp, while the pH and ascorbic
acid content was found to decrease irrespective of the fruit pulp. Increasing
trend in TSS content during storage corroborates with findings of earlier researchers
(Bajpai et al., 1973; Tandon
and Kalra, 1984; Baramanray et al., 1995;
Sandhu et al., 2001; Sharma
et al., 2008). The reason assigned for increased TSS content during
storage might be due to conversion of left over polysaccharides into soluble
sugar (Baramanray et al., 1995).
|| Average quality characters of guava and papaya fresh fruit
|| Effect of storage period on colour,flavour, taste and overall
acceptability of guava and papaya pulp at 6±1°C temperature
||Effect of storage period on TSS, pH, acidity (%) and ascorbic
acid content (mg/100g) of guava and papaya pulp at 6+1°C temperature
|| Effect of blending ratio of guava and papaya fruit pulp on
various quality parameters
Increasing trends in acidity with increasing storage period have been observed
earlier by Kalra and Revathi (1981) and Sandhu
et al. (2001) as well which may be due to formation of various organic
acids in the fruits such as sulphurous acid (Baramanray
et al., 1995). Trends of decreasing pH and increasing acidity found
in these studies are well supported by previous researchers (Tandon
et al., 1983; Sandhu et al., 2001).
Bajpai et al. (1973) observed decreasing trend
of ascorbic acid after 60 days storage of guava pulp. Similar results were observed
by Kalra and Revathi (1981), Baramanray
et al. (1995), Sandhu et al. (2001)
and Sharma et al. (2008). In aseptic processing,
loss of ascorbic acid was about 6% in papaya and no loss in guava puree but
when the same were stored at ambient conditions the ascorbic acid losses are
about 30 and 56% after 6 months, respectively (Chan and
Cavaletto, 1982). The reduction in ascorbic acid might be due to oxidation
and might be because of presence of residual oxygen in glass bottle and eliminating
oxygen during filling can minimize it.
The values of organoleptic and chemical quality parameters of blended pulp
are given in Table 4. On the basis of rating for organoleptic
quality attributes of blended pulp, it is revealed that the highest rating value
of colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability were recorded as
9.0, 8.95, 9.0 and 9.0 in C6, C1, C2 and C1 blended fruit pulp respectively.
It was also observed that the highest overall acceptability rating value 9.0
was found in blended pulp C2 (80% guava +20% papaya) followed by C3 (60% guava
+40% papaya) which were better than other blending ratios. All the organoleptic
quality attributes (colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability)
are also affected by fruit pulp blending ratios. The pooled data presented in
Table 4 revealed that the various chemical and qualitative
parameters were influenced by the fruit pulp blending. The TSS percentage, acidity
and ascorbic acid content decreases with increase in the ratios of papaya pulp
in blended fruit pulp, whereas the pH value increases. It can also be noticed
that in ratio C2, the value of TSS percentage, acidity and ascorbic acid content
was 12.95, 0.43 and 172.4 mg/100 g, respectively, though it is close to guava
pulp quality but better in colour and overall acceptability rating.
The guava fruits are rich in ascorbic acid content (Vitamin C) whereas, the papaya fruits are rich in Vitamin A content and with better pulp colour. The pulp recovery was more in papaya fruits as compared to the guava fruits and pulp of both the fruits may be used for processing purpose alone or in blended form. During the cold storage of pulp colour, flavor, texture and ascorbic acid content was reduced. However, TSS and acidity was increased with the increased storage period. When fruit pulps were mixed, its acceptable upto 40% papaya pulp blending.
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