Bovine Mastitis: An Asian Perspective
Gyu Jin Rho,
Yeong Ho Hong,
Tae Young Kang,
Hak Kyo Lee,
Dong Kee Jeong
Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory disease of cow and buffaloes mammary gland caused by various infectious or non-infectious etiological agents. Mastitis must have been one of the first observed disease of farm animals when cattle were domesticated over 5000 years ago. Since then it will have been an ever present problem for all those who kept and milked dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy industry in particular, plays a strong role for the livelihood of poor people because agriculture land is going to shrink as a results dependency of farmers is increasing towards dairy sector. The buffalo population in Asia has multiplied over the past half a century, by a factor of 2.5 rising by almost 2.2 billion in absolute numbers and at an average annual pace of over 1.8%. Over 3.9 billion, roughly 60% of the world population, reside in Asia. Bovine mastitis is one of the important production diseases of dairy animals which directly or indirectly affect the economy of the farmers and ultimately affect the economy of the country. However, mastitis is a global problem as it adversely affects animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production and every country including developed ones suffer huge financial losses. In Asia, major mastitis causing organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, E. coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Klebsiella spp., recent reports indicating the changing trends from Staphylococcus aureus to Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) as major mastitis causing organism. The pattern of mastitis occurrence in Asia is also significantly increasing in both cattle and buffaloes which is a major challenge for policy makers, field veterinarians and researchers.
November 05, 2011; Accepted: January 11, 2012;
Published: February 17, 2012
Bovine mastitis, defined as inflammation of the mammary gland, can have an
infectious or non-infectious etiology (Bradley, 2002).
It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually bacteriological changes
in milk and pathological changes in glandular tissues of the udder and affects
the quality and quantity of milk (Radostits et al.,
2000; Sharma et al., 2012). It is also defined
as inflammation of mammary gland parenchyma which is caused by microorganisms,
usually bacteria that invade the udder, multiply and produce toxins which are
harmful to the mammary gland (Sharma et al., 2006).
Mastitis must have been one of the first observed disease of farm animals when
cattle were domesticated over 5000 years ago. Since then it will have been an
ever present problem for all those who kept and milked dairy cattle and buffaloes.
In first books published regarding mastitis problems (17th century) its importance
was stressed and its association with poor cattle management and particularly
with leaving cows half milked. From 19th century there has been constant stream
of scientific and professional papers in veterinary and animal science literature
on mastitis causes and control. Scientific research followed Pasteur's demonstration
of the germ theory of disease in 1860 and by 1900 it was established
that most types of mastitis followed microbial infection.
Livestock and its inputs are a growing economic sector. The livelihood and
income effects of the livestock economy are huge. More than a billion people
keep livestock, 60% of rural households do so. Its a major income source
of the poor and especially of women in developing countries. The dairy industry
in particular, plays a strong role for the livelihood of poor people because
agriculture land is going to shrink as a results dependency of farmers is increasing
towards dairy sector. The livestock capital as part of the overall agricultural
capital amounts to more than a quarter. Land valued at market prices is about
half. Livestock capital is therefore a very important element of the overall
capital stock of world agriculture (Braun, 2010).
The buffalo population in Asia has multiplied over the past half a century,
by a factor of 2.5 rising by almost 2.2 billion in absolute numbers and at an
average annual pace of over 1.8%. Over 3.9 billion, roughly 60% of the world
population, reside in Asia (Cruz, 2010). The 2008 buffalo
milk production in Asia represents 96.78% of the total volumes of world's buffalo
milk of 89.2 Million tons. Production in South and Southwest Asia primarily
from India and Pakistan contributed a hefty 93.17% (FAO,
2010). Buffaloes are significant sources of milk in this sub-region contributing
as high as 68.35% of the total milk yield in Pakistan and 56.85% in total milk
production in India. The trend of milk production in some Asian countries is
given in Fig. 1.
|| The milk production trend in Asian coutnries
In India, the dairy sectors growth depended in large part on the use
of buffalo which, unlike high-yielding dairy cattle are well adapted to tropical
climes. Today, across India, more than half of all milk is produced from buffalo.
Cross-bred cattle numbers are increasing but they still account for less than
14% of the total cattle population (FAO, 2009).
Bovine mastitis is one of the important production diseases of dairy animals
which directly or indirectly affect the economy of the farmers and ultimately
affect the economy of the country. In dairy cattle mastitis results in severe
economic losses from reduced milk production, treatment cost, increased labor,
milk withheld following treatment and premature culling (Miller
et al., 1993). Mastitis continues as a problem in many dairy herds
despite proper application of proven control methods of teat dipping and total
dry cow therapy. In general, mastitis is a complex disease dealing with, the
interaction of microorganisms and the cows anatomy and physiology, dairy
husbandry and management, milking equipment and procedures and environment (Woods,
1986). Because of udder, anatomical position are subject to outside influence
and are prone to both inflammation and non-inflammatory conditions (Sharma,
2007). Infectious mastitis results from the introduction and multiplication
of pathogenic microorganisms in the mammary gland and this leads to a reduced
synthetic activity, changes in the milk composition and elevated milk Somatic
Cell Count (SCC) (Harmon, 1994). The bacterial contamination
of milk from the affected cows render it unfit for human consumption and provide
a mechanism of spread of diseases like tuberculosis, sore-throat, Q-fever, brucellosis,
leptospirosis etc. and has zoonotic importance (Sharif et
al., 2009). It is well known from several previous studies that the
incidence and the patterns of causative agents and disease occurrence markedly
differ from place to place, herd to herd and time to time. The prevalence of
bovine mastitis ranged from 29.34 to 78.54% (Sharma and
Rai, 1977; Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Sharma
and Maiti, 2010) in cows and 27.36 to 70.32% (Sharma
et al., 2004, 2007; Beheshti
et al., 2010) in buffaloes. Detailed analysis of previous studies
conducted in Pakistan (Athar, 2007) revealed that highest
prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes was
due to S. aureus with a mean of 46.72%.
The vehement research on bovine mastitis is comporting since past 7 decades but unfortunately the problem is still challengeable for the bovine mastitis researchers and particularly for field veterinarians to treat and control it. Now there is a need to imply the strategic control measures worldover to control this deadly disease of dairy animals to prevent heavy economic losses of farmers. To understand the detail mechanism of mastitis we need to compile the data on all aspects of mastitis from different parts of the world and, to aware the researcher and farmers with updates on mastitis. We need distribution and changing trend of etiological agents and prevalence of mastitis in different countries of the world to apply strategic plan for control of mastitis. In this study, we are compiling basic updated information and data particularly on distribution of etiological agents and prevalence, from some Asian countries on this important worldwide issue.
WHY BOVINE MASTITIS IS IMPORTANT?
Mastitis is the most economically important disease of dairy cattle, accounting
for 38% of the total direct costs of the common production diseases (Kossaibati
and Esslemont, 1997). Mastitis is a global problem as it adversely affects
animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production and every country
including developed ones suffer huge financial losses (Sharma
et al., 2007). It is the most important deadly disease of dairy animals
is responsible for heavy economic losses due to reduced milk yield (up to 70%),
milk discard after treatment (9%), cost of veterinary services (7%) and premature
culling (14%). India is the highest milk producer in the world but the per capita
availability of milk still remains half of the world average, demanding strategic
intervention. One of the reasons for low productivity is poor animal health,
particularly, mastitis which is single largest problem in dairy animal in terms
of economic losses in India. It is proved by the reports that the annual economic
losses due to bovine mastitis was increased 114 folds in about 4 decades from
1962 (INR 529 million/annum) (Dhanda and Sethi, 1962)
to 2001 (INR 60532 million/annum) (Dua, 2001). The dramatic
increase in the economic losses due to mastitis, divert the mind of researchers,
policy makers and dairy farmers toward this costliest disease to control it.
In addition to heavy losses in milk quality and quantity, it also causes irreversible
damage to the udder tissue and less occasional fatalities (Radostits
et al., 2000). Mastitis destroys the milk-secreting cells. Scar or
connective tissue replaces the milk secreting tissue, resulting in a permanent
loss of productive ability. Mastitis can lead to the reduction of offspring
to a given production system due to the insufficient milk production resulting
In South Korea, there are approximately 8,000 dairy farms and 472,000 cows,
yielding an average of 177,770,000 kg of raw milk per year. The degree of self-sufficiency
of milk produced in Korea is approximately 70%, so managing and preventing bovine
mastitis is an inevitable task (Park et al., 2007).
Dhakal and Thapa (2002) reported that about 68% of the
total losses resulted from drop in milk production in buffaloes in Nepal. In
Pakistan, losses due to clinical mastitis were estimated to INR 240 million
per annum in Punjab only during 1978 (Chaudhry and Khan,
1978). This estimate might be much higher if losses due to sub-clinical
mastitis (which is 15-40 times more prevalent than clinical form) had been included.
The work on bovine mastitis economics is very scaring in Asian countries; hence,
enough economic data on this disease is not available except few reports. Mastitis
has significantly constrained the development of the dairy industry in Bangladesh
(Islam et al., 2011). It has been estimated that
annual economic losses due to mastitis in the US, $1.5 to 2.0 billion. Apart
of its economic importance it also carries public health significance (Sharma
et al., 2003).
RISK FACTORS OF MASTITIS
Bovine mastitis is a multi-factorial disease which is closely related to the production system and environment in which the cows and buffaloes are kept. Risk factors such as management practices (shed and udder hygiene, poor teat condition, poor environmental hygiene, sanitation, large herd size, use of hand wash cloth, improper teat dipping), host (breed, high yielder, udder immunity, teat lesions, genetic resistance) and diet (Cu, Co, Zn, Selenium and vitamin E deficiency) amongst others have been reported to be important in the prevalence and epidemiology of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. To simplify understanding of the mastitis complexity, it is useful to consider risk factors or disease determinants which are broadly classified into three groups- host (cow or buffalo), pathogen (micro-organisms) and environment (Fig. 2).
Breed: As demand of milk and milk products increased, the most of developing
countries are focusing on the development of high producing new breeds of dairy
cows especially Holstein to fulfill the need. Holstein breed of cattle is the
most widespread dairy cattle breed, found in 128 countries worldwide (FAO,
The Boran breed which is recognised for its relatively high milk yield compared
to other cross-breeds, has been shown to be 3.4 times more likely to be affected
by clinical and sub-clinical mastitis than the Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu breed
(Karimuribo et al., 2006).
|| Risk factors for bovine mastitis
Increased risk of clinical mastitis in Friesian compared with Jersey and Ayrshire
heifers (Compton et al., 2007; Myllys
and Rautala, 1995). In Southern Ehiopia, Biffa et
al. (2005) reported that Holstein-Fresian cows are affected at a higher
rate (56.5%) compared with local zebu (30.9%) and Jersey cows (28.9%). Sharma
and Maiti (2010) also found that Holstein-Jersey cross bred cows are at
higher risk (94.54%) for mastitis than local zebu cows (31.25%) in India. These
differences between breeds may be due to immune response to intramammary infection
differs between breeds.
Species: The most of studies had been reported that cows are more vulnerable
to mastitis than buffaloes (Hussain et al., 1984;
Sharma, 2003). The comparative high resistance of buffaloes
to intramammary infections is may be possibly owing to following reasons- teat
orifice is tightly closed due to presence of well developed circular muscles,
stratified squamous keratinized epithelium of streak canal lining is thicker
which provides an extra resistance against penetration of pathogens through
epithelium and the stratum granulosum contained higher amount of keratohyalin
granules in buffaloes than in cows. These keratohyaline granules may probably
contribute in formation of large amount of keratin in lumen of streak canal.
Age and parity: Incidence of infected quarters increases with the age
(Kumar and Sharma, 2002; Sharma and
Prasad, 2002; Sharma et al., 2007; Sharma
and Maiti, 2010). Sharma et al. (2007) conducted
a study on 500 lactating buffaloes of different age, parities and stage of lactation
belonging to different organized or un-organized dairy farms in, Chhattisgarh
State, India and found that the higher prevalence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis (SCM)
in buffaloes was recorded in 5 to 9 years old animals and in 3rd and 4th parities.
Older cows (>10 years) are at more risk (44.6%), particularly for sub-clinical
mastitis (38.6%), than younger cows (23.6%) in which clinical mastitis was predominant
(Biffa et al., 2005).
Stage of lactation: The incidence of mastitis is higher during just
after parturition (first 2 months of lactation) and first 2-3 weeks of dry period
and Corbett (2009) suggests that the highest number
of clinical mastitis cases occurs during the first week of lactation and that
the lactating cow is more likely to develop clinical mastitis during the first
three months of lactation than the remainder of the lactating period. Fadlelmula
et al. (2009) reported that the first month of lactation displayed
the highest incidence of mastitis (62.7%), while the late stage of lactation
showed the lowest incidence (11.2%). Sharma et al.
(2011a) reported that dairy cows seemed to have more oxidative stress and
low antioxidant defense during early lactation or just after parturition than
advanced pregnant cows and this appears to be the reason for their increased
susceptibility to production diseases (e.g., mastitis, metritis, retention of
fetal membranes etc.) and other health problems.
Dry period: Dry period, a short term of approximately two months, takes
place during involution of old tissue and remodeling of new tissue in mammary
gland. A study suggests that a longer dry period (>40 days) increased the
risk of clinical mastitis (Peeler et al., 2000).
The rate of new infection is not constant across the dry period but is elevated
during the two weeks following drying off and the two weeks prior to calving
(Smith et al., 1985). Some studies said that
the IMI rate is 2 to 12 times higher during the dry period than at any other
time during the lactation cycle of the cow (Vlieststra, 2003).
Increased susceptibility is due, in part, to changes in the teat canal, the
primary defense barrier against bacterial penetration.
Transition period: The transition period between late pregnancy and
early lactation (also called the periparturient period) certainly is the most
interesting stage of the lactation cycle of dairy animals. Although, the length
of time classified as the transition period has been defined earlier by different
authors but recently defined this period as last 4 weeks before parturition
to first 4 weeks after parturition (Sharma et al.,
2011b). Dairy cattle are more susceptible to a variety of metabolic and
infectious diseases like mastitis, during the transition period compared with
peak lactation (Sordillo et al., 2007). Dairy
cows and buffaloes are more susceptible during this period because of compromised
host defense mechanisms which may be directly owing to numerous physiological
and environmental factors during the transition period. For example, physiological
stresses associated with rapid differentiation of secretory parenchyma, intense
mammary gland growth and the onset of copious milk synthesis and secretion are
accompanied by a high energy demand and an increased oxygen requirement (Gitto
et al., 2002). This increased oxygen demand enhances the production
of oxygen-derived reactants, collectively termed Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
which damage the cell membrane of phagocytic cells and compromise the immune
system (Sharma et al., 2011b).
Milking interval: The influence of an irregular interval between morning
and evening milking (<12 or >12 hours/day) on the prevalence of mastitis
may have been the consequence of an enhanced chance for bacteria to colonize
teat ends and streak canals during the longer milking intervals (Doherr
et al., 2007).
Udder defense and milk factors: Udder has physical and anatomical barriers
to prevent entry of infections organism in the teat canal. These barriers include
teat skin, teat sphincter, keratin, furstenburg rosette etc. In addition, the
teat canal produces antimicrobial substances, to act against any bacteria that
enter the duct. Humoral and cellular factors inhibiting bacterial growth are
in normal milk and in greater concentration in mastitic milk (Jain,
1979). Cell-free normal milk possesses a variable degree of growth inhibitory
activity for Streptococci, Staphylococci and Coliform organisms (Schalm
et al., 1971). Milk contains various soluble factors (e.g., lactoferrin,
immunoglobulins, tranferrin etc.) those play important role to prevent bacterial
multiplication and establishment of infection. Lactoferrin is bacteriostatic
in vitro for a variety of bacteria because of its iron-chelating ability
which makes iron non-available for bacterial growth. Normal milk opsonizes bacteria
for easy phagocytosis and mastitic milk is superior in this respect because
of its content of serum opsonins. The main function of immunoglobulins in secretions
of the bovine mammary gland is opsonization of microorganisms for phagocytosis
by leukocytes but they also play a role as antitoxin (Nickerson,
1989). Immunoglobulins, mainly isotype IgG1, is selectively transferred
into mammary secretions from blood; thus, it is the major isotype in mammary
secretions for all stages of lactation.
Teat injuries: Teat canal is the main route of entry of mastitis causing
organisms except tuberculous mastitis (hematogenous route), hence, teat injury
is most important risk factor of intramammary infection. Changes to teat tissue,
particularly the skin of the barrel, teat-end and teat canal may favor penetration
of bacteria into the udder and increase the risk of new mastitis infections
(Hamann et al., 1994).
Blood groups: A recent study was conducted on association of the M blood
group system with bovine mastitis by Larsen et al. (1985)
in Denmark. Associations of the 11 bovine blood group systems with mastitis
were examined in Red Danish dairy cattle. A significant effect of the M blood
group system on mastitis incidence was observed in the first and second lactation
periods and a lower frequency of mastitis is found among animals lacking the
M factor as compared to those having the M blood group factor. Very
less reports are available on this aspect of bovine mastitis.
Pathogenic risk factors: Important pathogenic risk factors include presence
of number of organisms on teat skin and their virulence factors, presence of
minor pathogens and blind treatment. The incidence of mastitis seems to be related
to the number of organisms on the teat skin and teat end (McDonald,
1977). Streptococci and Staphylococci are in high numbers on teat skin;
hence, they are the cause of most intramammary infections. The various reports
indicated that the quarters that harbor minor pathogens are less susceptible
to new infections by major pathogens than uninfected quarters, a phenomenon
that is possibly related to the protective effect of the cell response triggered
by the minor pathogens. Several studies have reported that infection by the
minor pathogens Corynebacterium bovis and the coagulase negative Staphylococci
can prevent subsequent infection with the major pathogens (Doane
et al., 1987). Awareness of protective tissues of the teat end becomes
very important when administering intramammary therapy at drying off. Bacteria
often colonize teat duct keratin, remaining there for months and may require
some form of mechanical assistance to penetrate into cisternal areas. The blind
intramammary treatment like full insertion of the teat canula could force keratin
against the interior teat wall, creating a larger than normal opening and stretching
the sphincter muscle, thereby enhancing bacterial penetration, resulting mastitis.
Environmental factors: There are various environmental factors those
play crucial role in the occurrence of mastitis and development of new cases
particularly environmental mastitis. These factors include housing system, climate,
season, heat stress, milking hygiene, udder hygiene, milking machine, milking
techniques etc. Housing has been previously identified as a risk factor for
clinical mastitis and is thought to be related to an increase in exposure to
environmental pathogens (Barkema et al., 1999).
Poorly designed facilities can contribute to increased incidence of environmental
mastitis. Heat and humidity may increase the pathogen load in the environment
(field or housing) (Godden et al., 2003), resulting
in a greater incidence of mastitis in warm weather. Shathele
(2009) reported that, the incidence of mastitis decreased with increasing
ambient temperature but increased with decreasing ambient temperature. Palanivel
et al. (2008) reported that occurrence of mastitis was highest during
summer season (53.80%) followed by winter (41.30%) and rainy season (37.50%)
in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. The occurrence of mastitis in different seasons
depends on the agro-climatic conditions of particular region. As in Asia, different
countries have different agro-climatic conditions. The results of Dhakal
et al. (2007) showed that 37.3% of buffaloes had clinical mastitis
during the summer season followed by the autumn season (31.7%) and minimum (7.83%)
during spring season (February, March and April) in Nepal. Milking hygiene reduce
the pathogenic organisms from inhabiting the immediate environment or skin of
the animals and minimizing their spread during milking process. Udder hygiene
significantly associated with the risk of environmental pathogen intramammary
infection in cows (Compton et al., 2007). The
risk of new IMI by contagious as well as environmental pathogens such as Streptococcus
uberis is increased by machine-induced changes such as greater degree of
openness of the teat canal orifice after milking (Mein et
al., 2001). Corynebacterium bovis is a commensal of the teat
canal. The milking procedure is one of the most important risk factors for both
clinical mastitis and high SCC (Barkema et al., 1999).
Mastitis is a multietiological complex disease. The cow udder is an ideal environment
for microbial growth and under optimum udder conditions, such as temperature,
nutrition and freedom from outside influence, pathogenic organisms multiply
astronomically and it is this factor that causes udder damage and triggers the
response that is recognized as mastitis (Sharma and Vohra,
2011). Previously, the mastitis researchers associated the mastitis with
physical factors like cold and mechanical injuries. Frank in the year 1876,
transmitted the disease by inoculating inflammatory secretions from diseased
quarters into the canals of healthy quarters. He thus, proved the infectious
nature of this disease and put forward an entirely new concept in the investigation
of mastitis etiology. An association between mastitis and pathogenic micro-organisms
was established in 1887. Most major pathogens were identified by the 1940s (Sharma
et al., 2011b). More than 200 infectious causes of bovine mastitis
are known to date and in large animals the commonest pathogens are Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, other Streptococcus and
Coliforms in Asia (Kader et al., 2002; Sudhan
et al., 2005; Chahar et al., 2008;
Yong et al., 2009; Sharma,
2008; Sharma and Maiti, 2010). While in a recent
report of Kumar et al. (2009) Streptococcus
dysgalactiae was major (50.00%) organism isolated from the cases of subclinical
mastitis in cows followed by Staphylococcus aureus and others. It may
also be associated with many other organisms including Actinomyces pyogenes,
Pseudaomonas aeruginosa, Nocardia asteroides, Clostridium perfringens
and others like Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Pastuerella and Prototheca
species and yeasts (Table 1). The majority of the
cases are caused by only a few common bacterial pathogens, namely, Staphylococcus
species, Streptococcus species, Coliforms and Actinomyces pyogenes
|| Common mastitis causing microorganisms in the world including
Recently a new species of bacteria (Mannheimia granulomatis) had been
isolated from the milk of subclinical bovine mastitis from Israel (Blum
et al., 2010).
Fortunately, the vast majority of mastitis cases are caused by a relatively
small number of microorganisms that can be grouped into three categories: (1)
Contagious (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacterium
bovis, Mycoplasma species), (2) Environmental (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
pneumonia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia species, Citrobacter species,
Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus
dysgalactiae) and (3) other Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS),
Serratia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nocardia asteroids, Prototheca
spp., Candida spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes) (Sudhan
and Sharma, 2010).
Many studies from Asia countries have been reported that Staphylococcus
aureus is the chief etiological agent of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes
(Kang-Hee et al., 2001; Sharma
et al., 2007; Abdel-Rady and Sayed, 2009;
Rahman et al., 2010; Sharma
and Maiti, 2010). Staph. aureus is ubiquitous and can colonize the
skin as well as the udder. It is capable of causing peracute, acute, subacute,
chronic, gangrenous and subclinical types of mastitis. The acute form of the
disease usually occurs shortly after parturition and tends to produce gangrene
of the affected quarters with high mortality. Grossly, the affected tissues
are swollen, tense, hot, firm and painful. Milk secretion is reduced. Gangrenous
tissues become blue and eventually black in color. Streptococcus agalactiae
was a major cause of chronic mastitis in pre-antibiotic era and is still
a serious cause of chronic mastitis in some herds, although it can be eradicated
readily by proper antibiotic therapy and management. S. agalactiae multiplies
in the milk and on the mammary epithelial surfaces, generally causing a subacute
or chronic inflammatory reaction with periodic acute flareups. The affected
tissue eventually is destroyed resulting in reduced milk production or agalactia.
CNS have traditionally been considered to be minor mastitis pathogens, especially
in comparison with major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci
and coliforms. The main reason for this is that mastitis caused by CNS is very
mild and usually remains subclinical (Taponen et al.,
2006). The significance of CNS, however, needs to be reconsidered as in
many countries they have become the most common mastitis-causing agents (Pittkala
et al., 2004; Tenhagen et al., 2006).
There is no doubt that some CNS species should be considered as mastitis pathogens
but the large number of species included in the CNS group blurs our current
understanding of their role in mastitis.
|| Distribution of common organisms in different countries of
|# Staphylococci, * Staphylococcus epidermidis,
$ Staphylococcus hemolyticus a S. agalactiae,
b S. dysgalactiae, c S. albus, d
S. uberis, e S. hyicus, f S. bovis
ab Coliforms. 1 Others Klebsiella spp., 2
Pseudomonas spp., 3 Proteus spp., 4 Bacillus spp.,
5 Corynebacterium spp., 6 Micrococcus
spp., 7 Candida spp., 8 Gram-negative, 9
Gram positive Bacilli, 11 C. bovis, 12 C.
pyogenes, 13 Trichosporon spp., 14 Yeast,
15 Pasteurella spp., 16 Salmonella spp.,
17 Prototheca, 18 Enterobacter, 19
Despite intensive aetiological research, still around 20-35% of clinical cases
of bovine mastitis have an unknown etiology.
For understanding, treatment and effective control strategies it is important to know the distribution of etiological agent in that particular region, so here we summarizing the distribution of some important bovine mastitis causing organisms (Table 2).
Prevalence of major pathogens is decreasing, the relative importance of other
organisms, particularly CNS, increasing. In India, the prevalence of CNS among
bacterial isolates from milk samples increased from 9.91% in 2003 (Sharma
and Prasad, 2003) to 72.13% in 2009 (Dutta, 2009).
CNS are now among the most commonly isolated organisms from milk samples of
cows with subclinical mastitis in many countries (Rajala-Schultz
et al., 2004; Osteras et al., 2006;
Ahire et al., 2008).
Generally, the mastitis due to fungi and yeast is uncommon or rare. Kirk
and Bartlett (1986) have been mentioned a prevalence of fungal mastitis
of 2 to 7%. The prevalence of mycotic mastitis is usually very low (1-12% of
all mastitis causes) but sometimes it can occur in enzootic proportions. The
percentage of fungal isolation in surveys carried out in many countries varies
considerably, with 6.1% rates reported in Egypt (Awad et
al., 1980), 1.3% in South Korea (Yeo and Choi, 1982)
and 12.07% (Costa et al., 1993) to 25.4% (De
Casia dos Santos and Marin, 2005) in Brazil. In India, bacteria are the
major mastitis etiological agents, prevalence of Mycotic mastitis is less but
upto 60% of cases of Mycotic mastitis has been reported (Vimalraj
et al., 2006). Isolation of yeast like fungi from bovine milk was
reported as early as 1901 (Beck, 1957). In Fungi,
Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Trichosporon spp. and
Saccharomyces spp. are comparatively more prevalent but the involvement
of Geotrichum candidum in bovine mastitis is very rare (Chahota
et al., 2001). G. candidum is an opportunistic, keratinophilic
yeast like fungus that is widely distributed in nature i.e., soil, fodder etc.
Kheirabadi et al. (2008) from our studies concluded
that subclinical mastitis is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus,
in west central region of Iran. Ebrahimi and Nokookhan (2005)
studied on fungal isolation from mastitis milk and found Fusarium (28.26%)
were most frequent one in chronic cases and followed by Trichosporon
(26.08%), Candida spp. (17.39%), Aspergillus fumigatus (13.04%),
Rhodotorulla (10.87%) and Geotrichum (4.35%) while in cases of
acute mastitis the most frequent ones were Trichosporon (66.04%) and
followed by Candida spp. (11.20%), Geotrichum (5.66%), Aspergillus
fumigatus (3.77%), Fusarium (1.89%) and Rhodotorulla (1.89%)
from Iran. Recent report from Iran indicating that CNS are major etiological
agents for bovine mastitis in Iran (Beheshti et al.,
2010). In West central Iran, E. coli and CNS are more frequent cause
of bovine mastitis (Ebrahimi et al., 2007).
Jemeljanovs et al. (2008) analysed a total of
577 subclinical and clinical mastitis secretion samples from the different dairy
farms in Lativa and found that Staphylococcus aureus and CNS prevail
in subclinically (72.7%) and clinically (46.7%) diseased cows udder secretion
samples. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 41.1% of subclinically
and 24.1% clinically diseased cows secretion samples, but CNS from 27.0
and 20.4%, respectively. Streptococcus spp. were isolated from 5.9% of
subclinically and 33.6% of clinically mastitic cows, while in the 1980s Streptococcus
spp. were isolated from 65.5% of subclinical and 64.8% of clinical mastitis
cases. Therefore, present findings revealed that replacement of predominating
agents of mastitis from the genus Streptococcus to the genus Staphylococcus
has been occurred in Lativa.
From the above studies in Nepal, it is concluded that pattern of bacterial
distribution responsible for mastitis has been changed i.e., previously (1994-1998)
E. coli was predominating organism, while recent reports showed that
Staphylococcus spp. are more prevalent than E. coli in mastitis
case (Dhakal, 2006; Dhakal et
STATUS OF MASTITIS DISTRIBUTION
The prevalence of mastitis is increasing in parallel with the development of new high milk producing breeds of cows and buffaloes. Some other factors may also be contributed in the increasing incidence of mastitis like lack of awareness, delay in the detection in absence of visible signs of abnormal milk, unhygienic milking practices and, delay and incomplete treatment of clinical and chronic mastitis. Figure 3 is clearly showing the increasing trend of bovine mastitis in Asia.
Studies conducted in different states of India reflecting the high prevalence
of bovine mastitis all over India for t he past seven decades when the first
record of the mastitis was made by Land in 1926.
||The increasing trend of bovine mastitis prevalence
|| Distribution of mastitis in different geographical regions
of Asian countries.
|1 Quarter basis, 2 Animal basis, #
Subclinical, * Clinical, FQ = Fore quarter, HQ = Hind quarter, LF: Left
fore, RH: Right hind
The two decades ago an average incidence of clinical mastitis in India was
1 to 10% (Prabhakar, 1986; Kumar,
1990) and separately incidence of Sub-Clinical Mastitis (SCM) was 10 to
50% in cows and 5 to 20% in buffaloes (Kumar, 1988; Singh,
1991). A technical report of Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1960-1961
indicates the incidence of mastitis in 267 animals in Bangalore was 24.8 and
21.2% in cows and buffaloes, respectively and in 516 animals in Uttar Pradesh
was 40.5 and 27% in cows and buffaloes, respectively (Anon,
1963). While recent studies have been reported the incidence of SCM ranged
from 19.20 to 83% (Tuteja et al., 1993; Sharma
and Maiti, 2010; Kumar et al., 2010) and
42% (Sharma et al., 2007) in cows and Buffaloes,
respectively. However, overall prevalence of bovine mastitis in India is 44.67%
(ranged from 25.63 to 97.61%). This data is calculated as mean of more than
100 studies of 21 states of the India. This range (25.63 to 97.61%) of bovine
mastitis occurrence clearly indicates the drastic increase in the prevalence
of mastitis. This significant increase in the occurrence of bovine mastitis
is an alarming phase for the dairy sector. The increasing trend is also in most
of Asian countries like in Pakistan from 38.07 (Said and
Abd-el-Malik, 1968) to 60.27% (Chrishty et al.,
2007), in Bangladesh from 16.50 (Prodhan et al.,
1996) to 51.30 (Rahman et al., 2010) and
so on (Fig. 3). The detail distribution of bovine mastitis
in different major milk producing countries of Asia is given in Table
It has been reported that sub-clinical mastitis is 3-40 times more common than
the clinical mastitis and causes the greatest overall losses in most dairy herds
(Schultz et al., 1978). Only sub-clinical mastitis
is responsible for 60-70% of total economic losses associated with all mastitic
infections. It is assumed that the sub-clinical form frequently goes unnoticed
and is associated with significant economic losses that include increased clinical
diseases risks, impaired milk production and reduced reproductive performance
and culling losses (Sharma, 2010).
The data of frequent changing trend of etiological agents and increasing prevalence rate of mastitis in cows and buffaloes in Asia is a matter of broad discussion and need more strategic research in this field to control the mastitis. Because as we know that the Asian countries are the major milk producing countries in the world. This review paper is providing the all basic data in different parts of Asia for policy makers and mastitis researchers to work in the direction of control of mastitis. Moreover, bovine mastitis is still a big challenge to the field veterinarians and mastitis researchers to fight against mastitis.
This study was supported by a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (No. PJ008084), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea, hence the authors are thankful to this organization.
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