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Articles by T. Balasubramanian
Total Records ( 12 ) for T. Balasubramanian
  The effect of amylase on growth performance, survival rate and proximate composition of Perinereis cultrifera was investigated. The amylase produced by Bacillus sp. was added to polychaete basal diets at three concentrations such as 50, 100 and 150 mg kg−1 in experiments I, II and III, respectively. After 90 days, polychaete receiving the diets supplemented with enzymes at 150 mg kg−1 showed significantly better growth performance and survival rate than those fed the basal diet (Control). Among these experimental animals, the maximum protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash contents were recorded in experiment III, whereas moisture content was maximum in control and minimum in experiment III. The essential fatty acids such as palmitic acid (C16:0), margaric acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω-6) occurred at higher concentration in experiment group than in control. Thus, the amylase produced by Bacillus sp. significantly influenced growth, survival rate and proximate composition of P. cultrifera which has importance in aquaculture industry.
  S. Nithya , Abhay Singh Gour , N. Sivakumaran , T.K. Radhakrishnan , T. Balasubramanian and N. Anantharaman
  The aim of this research is to discuss the control issues associated with the non-linear systems in real time using cost effective data acquisition system. The non-linear systems taken up for study are conical and spherical tank. System identification of these nonlinear processes are done using black box model, which is identified to be non-linear and approximated to be a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model. In this study, for designing the controllers, we have taken Proportional Integral (PI) controller using Skogestad tuning rule, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) using both Mamdani (M-FL) and Takagi-Sugeno (TS-FL) models are developed for controlling the non-linear processes using MATLAB with ADAM’s data acquisition module. The performance comparison of the controllers are compared based on performance indices like Integral Squared Error (ISE) and Integral Absolute Error (IAE). The real time implementation of the results, shows that the TS based FL produces improved control performance the Mamdani fuzzy and conventional controller.
  R. Thavasi , S. Jayalakshmi , R. Radhakrishnan and T. Balasubramanian
  The present investigation is on evaluation of biodegradation potential of four species of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, B. megaterium, C. kutscheri, L. delbrueckii and P. aeruginosa and screening for plasmids. For biodegradation study, the strains were cultured in mineral salt medium with 0.1% of crude oil for seven days. Biodegradation results inferred that, P. aeruginosa showed 85.15% of crude oil degradation, followed by B. megaterium (78.5%), C. kutscheri (76.4%) and L. delbrueckii (71.6%). Strains were grown for 24 h in Luria-Bertani broth for plasmid study. Plasmid study revealed that, P. aeruginosa harbored two plasmids with molecular weight of 4.2 and 3.8 kb. The other strains namely L. delbrueckii, C. kutscheri and B. megaterium were found to have single plasmid with respective molecular weight of 3.8, 4.2 and 4.1 kb. Complete loss of biodegradation potential was observed when the plasmids of these strains cured with acridine orange.
  R. Karthikeyan , S. Karthigayan , M. Sri Balasubashini , S. Vijayalakshmi , S.T. Somasundaram and T. Balasubramanian
  The anti-tumor activity of the sea snake venom (Hydrophis spiralis) was evaluated against Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and HeLa and Hep2 tumor cell cultures. Among the different dose tested 4.18 μg mL-1 at 24 h was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. The same dose on EAC-bearing mice by i.p. injection significantly reduced the tumor growth and was demonstrated by increased life span of the mice by 182.81%.
  R. Karthikeyan , S. Karthigayan , M. Sri Balasubashini , S. Vijayalakshmi , S.T. Somasundaram and T. Balasubramanian
  The present study was carried out to assess the antitumor effect of venom from snake, Hydrophis spiralis on the Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC). Four groups of albino Swiss mice were treated with three doses of the sub lethal dose of venom, viz., 0.418, 4.18 and 6.27 μg kg-1 body weight (intraperitoneal injection) along with the standard drug 5 flurouracil (20 mg kg-1 b.w.). The biochemical analysis and rest was left to calculate the mean survival time. In EAC bearing mice, mean life span tumor volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell and lymphocytes were significantly decreased when compared to the normal animals. Whereas, body weight, neutrophils and viable tumor cell count was increased in the EAC bearing mice. These changes were brought back to near normal levels in different treatment groups. The macromolecule concentration of peritoneal cells, such as, DNA, RNA and protein, were altered in the EAC bearing mice and observed to be near normal in the treatment groups. The caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the peritoneal cells of the treatment groups when compared to the EAC bearing mice. The role of apoptotic cascade in EAC cell death was confirmed by the DNA fragmentation on agarose gel. Apart from the antitumor effect, snake venom reduced the tumor burden on the liver and altered the changes in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Hence the venom from H. spiralis has a potential antitumor effect on the EAC bearing mice.
  S. Kanchana , R. Vennila , K. Rajesh Kumar , M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian
  Marine mollusc paved a way for the isolation of bioactive compounds. Therefore, the present study was to investigate the Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities on 25 mollusc samples. The antibacterial activity was conducted against six human pathogens and anti fungal activity was tested against two fungal strains by the disc diffusion method. Further, in vitro toxicity assays such as hemolytic activity was done in microtiter plates method and Brine shrimp toxicity assay were tested against Artemia μg. The potent antibacterial activities were found against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Salmonella paratyphi and the high degree of anti fugal activity in Aspergillus fumigatus than Fusarium sp. The hemolytic activity was detected in Meretrix casta, Sepia officinalis, Lophiotoma indica, Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis ink, Ficus ficus, Xancus pyrum, Natica picta, Turrittella attenuata, Architectonica sp. The Brine Shrimp toxicity (LC50) was also found in Conus betilinus, Hemifusus pugilinus, Burselltalla leachi, Lambis lambis, Ficus ficus, Conus adustus. The results revealed that mollusc samples are a promising source for identifying novel drug lead compounds.
  R. Karthikeyan , S. Karthigayan , M. Sri Balasubashini , S. Vijayalakshmi and T. Balasubramanian
  The venom of the Lapemis curtus was tested for its ability to induce histopathological changes in mice intraperitoneal injection of the venom (LD50 of 0.65 mg kg-1), by light microscopic examination of some organs (liver, kidney and spleen). L. curtus venom induces changes including necrosis and edematous appearance with cellular infiltration and vacuolation. The injury of kidneys includes significant changes of the glomerular apparatus. Venom treated mice liver shows congestion, micro vesicular fatty changes and infiltration of inflammatory cells around the portal vein. Where as, spleen showed hemorrhage, congested and inflammation were observed. Areas of hemorrhage, vascular congestion and cloudy swelling in renal tubules were observed in the kidney. No myoglobinuria was noted in any group of animals. The crude venom was also administered intraperitoneally into the experimental animals and tissue samples were taken at several time intervals. The venom of the sea snake L. curtus, was tested for its ability to induce myonecrosis changes in albino mice. Induction of myonecrosis was demonstrated by their ability to release Creatine Kinase (CK) from damaged muscle fibers and direct histopathological examination of the injected muscles (i.m.). Crude venom exhibits intense myonecrosis characterized by the changes including, necrosis and edematous appearance with cellular infiltrate, vacuolation and degenerated muscle cells with delta lesions and heavy edema in between the cells.
  P. Anand , D. Rajakumar , A. John William Felix and T. Balasubramanian
  The present study evaluates the effects of oral administration of taurine on haematological parameters in normal wistar rats. Tissue oxidative stress is implicated in pathogenesis of various clinical disorders and antioxidant taurine is emerging as prophylactic and therapeutic agent. However, studies on effects of taurine on normal physiology are not reported in literature. Normal saline (Group I) or 5% taurine in normal saline was administered in dose of 50 mg (Group II), 250 mg (Group III) or 500 mg kg-1 of b.wt. (Group IV) through intragastric intubation for 60 days. The blood cell counts, haemoglobin content, packed cell volume, blood indices, bleeding time and clotting time were estimated using routine laboratory haematological techniques. Neutrophil’s phagocytic activity was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test; serum lysozyme activity was estimated colorimetrically by the degree to lyse bacterial cell suspension and serum taurine levels were estimated by HPLC fluorimetric technique. Platelet count showed a decrease in Group III and IV when compared with Group I and II (p<0.001). Mean corpuscular haemoglobin of Group III and IV are significantly lowered when compared to Group I (p<0.001). A statistically significant decrease was observed in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration between Group I and Group IV (p<0.001). The neutrophil percentage of Group II, Group III and Group IV showed a significant increase over Group I (p<0.001). The percentage of lymphocytes showed a significant decrease in Group II, III and Group IV when compared to Group I (p<0.001). Neutrophil’s phagocytic activity is significantly lowered in Group III and IV when compared to Group I (p<0.001). The serum lysozyme activity of Group III and IV showed a significant increase over Group I (at p<0.001). From the present study it may be concluded that long term oral administration of taurine affects normal haematological functions.
  P. Anand , D. Rajakumar , Mathew Jeraud , A. John William Felix and T. Balasubramanian
  The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of taurine on endogenous glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Glutathione Reductase (GR) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in normal rats. Normal saline (Group I) or 5% taurine in normal saline was administered in dose of 50 mg (Group II), 250 mg (Group III) or 500 mg kg-1 of body weight (Group IV) through intragastric intubation for 60 days. GPx and GR enzyme activities and GSH and taurine levels were determined in liver, heart, stomach, kidney and plasma of normal Wistar rats. GPx activity showed an increase in liver, heart, stomach and plasma. GR activity increased in kidney and decreased in liver and plasma. GSH levels increased in liver, stomach and decreased in kidney. Liver showed an increase and heart, stomach and kidney a decrease in taurine level in taurine administered rats when compared to control rats. The results varied from organ to organ and the observed variations among organs might be related to their respective enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidant potential and its functions. From the present study it may be concluded that long term oral administration of taurine affects GPx, GR and GSH levels in normal rats.
  P. Damotharan , N. Vengadesh Perumal , M. Arumugam , P. Perumal , S. Vijayalakshmi and T. Balasubramanian
  The spatial, temporal and tidal dynamics of the zooplankton community of the Kodiakkarai (also known as point calimere ) was studied from September 2006 to August 2007. The monthly sampling procedure included the measurement of hydrological parameters salinity, temperature, pH and the collection of zooplankton with plankton net (0.35 m mouth diameters), made up of bolting silk (Cloth No. 10; mesh size 158) for 20 min. The hydrographical parameters were found to very month-wise and station-wise. Air temperature showed summer peak and pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and monsoon decline and the variations were associated with the seasonal changes of meteorological events. Salinity was high during the post monsoon and summer seasons and low during the monsoon season at both stations and was mainly influenced by the rainfall pattern. pH was high during the monsoon and summer seasons and low during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons at both stations and the rainfall mainly influenced the variation. Dissolved oxygen concentration was high during the monsoon season and low during the summer season at both stations. Distribution of dissolved nutrients also exhibited considerable seasonal due to the flooding and land runoff. The silicate concentration was especially found to be much higher than other nutrients. Among the 121 zooplanktonic forms recorded, the Copepoda formed the dominant group followed by larvae.
  S. Ravichandran , A. Anthonisamy , T. Kannupandi and T. Balasubramanian
  Leaf consuming mangrove crabs play an important role in the initial processing of litter in low to mid intertidal riverine and fringing forests. In Pichavaram mangrove, the sesarmid crabs are dominant, leading mostly herbivorous mode of life and play a vital role in the process of leaf degradation and thus in biogeochemical cycles. The gut content analysis also showed they are mainly consumed vascular plant matter (58.33 to 72.54%). Sesarmid crabs strongly preferred 40 day decomposed Avicennia marina leaves when both fresh and 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 90 and 100 days decomposed leaves of A. marina, Rhizophora mucronata and Acanthus ilicifolius were offered. Sesarmid crabs are important not only because of their burrowing activities, which can affect nutrient cycling and forest productivity but also their role as a link in the food web in the mangrove ecosystem.
  G. Devanathan , A. Shanmugam , T. Balasubramanian and S. Manivannan
  Aspergillus niger was isolated from the soil samples of mangrove debris in Vellar estuary (Parangipettai, India) and it was used for cellulase production. The physical and chemical parameters of fermentation like pH, temperature, incubation time, substrate, carbon and nitrogen source were optimized. The optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of cellulase by A. niger were found to be pH: 6.5, Temperature: 30°C, Incubation period: 96 h, carbon source: Lactose, Substrate: wheat bran and nitrogen source: peptone.
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