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Articles by T. Balasubramanian
Total Records ( 11 ) for T. Balasubramanian
  S. Karthigayan , M. Sri Balasubashini , M. Sengottuvelan , T. Balasubramanian and S.T. Somasundaram
  The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer potential of salivary gland extracts of Octopus ageina on in vitro and in vivo cancer models. LD50 values of both anterior (AGE) and posterior gland extract (PGE) were analyzed using Swiss Albino mice. Different concentration of sublethal dose was subjected to hemolytic assay using 1% human erythrocytes. Since PGE did not show any hemolysis at concentration below 400 μg, it was chosen for the anticancer studies. Preliminary anticancer effect was tested on COLO 205 cells at three different concentrations, viz., 50, 75 and 100 μg mL–1 medium. Among the above three doses, 100 μg mL–1 medium was found to inhibit cell growth effectively after 24 h. The same effective dose was used to confirm the anticancer potential of PGE against 1.2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer in male Albino Wistar rats. After 30 weeks of the experimental period PGE showed promising effects by reduced tumor incidence and mean tumor size. The β-glucuronidase (intestine and colon) and mucinase (Colon and fecal contents) activity were significantly reduced after treatment with PGE when compared to the DMH treated rats. The above anticancer effect of PGE was further confirmed by the histopathological changes of the colon. Thus, PGE proves itself to have potent anticancer substance and further studies are warranted to isolate and identify the active component.
  Olivia J. Fernando , K. Raja and T. Balasubramanian
  Amphiprion sebae kept in the recirculating Marine Research Aquarium spawned a maximum of 0.8 times per month throughout the year. This is the first spawning record from a recirculating aquarium environment. Generally the spawning of A. sebae has been described from fresh seawater by various authors. The present study mainly observes the maintenance of brooders, their pairing and spawning in recirculating aquarium environment. Among the 54 adult fishes collected from the natural environment, three pairs are formed in the aquaria. The parental care of egg guarding male was observed. Three pairs are fed with different feed i.e., prawn meat, fish meat and a combination of prawn, fish and clam meats. The spawning frequency was observed to be moderately high (0.8/month) when fed with the mixed feed, whereas a frequency of 0.5 and 0.6 per months was observed when fed with prawn, fish meats respectively. The maximum clutch size (911) was observed also in mixed feeds and it was minimum (395) when the pairs were fed with fish meat alone. The increase in the frequency of spawning was during summer months compared to other months.
  R. Karthikeyan and T. Balasubramanian
  A detail study of sea snakes (family: Hydrophidae) occurring in the Coramantal coastal region (south east coast of India) has reveled the presence of thirteen species included in five genera. In this study the systematic, ecology, biology and distribution of thirteen species embraced in five genera, which are present in the collections done during 2003 to 2006 are given. The distribution patterns of all the valid species known to occur in the Coramantal coastal region are also included from a detailed study of the literature.
  R. Venkatesan , K.P. Kumaraguru Vasagam and T. Balasubramanian
  Marine microalgal species such as Skeletonima costatum and Chaetoceros coarctatus were cultured in Discharge Water (DW) from shrimp culture pond to recover the organic and inorganic nutrients released as waste. Total nitrogen (N), nitrate-N and total phosphorus in the DW were observed significantly higher and their mean values were 95.261, 32.6 and 11.312 mg L-1, respectively. Algal species were cultured in processed DW under 12 h light/12 h dark condition with light intensity of 6000-7000 Lux and compared with cultures made in standard Conway medium which served as a control. Cell density was obtained higher over the control by 30.1 and 20.0% in S. costatum and C. coarctatus respectively in DW. While the rate of nitrogen removal was between 42.3 and 47.2%, the phosphorus removal efficiency was 20.8 and 17.7% in S. costatum and C. coarctatus respectively. The present study inferred that, as it is a low cost technology for microalgal production as well as a mean for waste water treatment, marine microalgal culture in DW from shrimp farm will be a two in one approach towards sustainable utilization of aquatic resource.
  K.P. Kumaraguru Vasagam , M. Rajkumar , Jean-Paul Trilles and T. Balasubramanian
  Lernaea cyprinacea, a parasitic cyclopoid copepod, is reported parasitizing sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna breeders, cultured in the Center of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Parangipettai (India). The fish were severely infected on their body surface with the highest number of 38 parasites per host. Feeding and reproductive activities, including spawning, stopped following parasitic infection. The parasites are females unsegmented, sub-cylindrical shaped and 20 mm in length. They are provided with paired appendages including prominent egg sacs. This is the first report on their occurrence in the cultured ornamental fish P. latipinna, in India. Lernaea infection was successfully controlled by gradually changing the water salinity to 10‰.
  S. Ravichandran , S. Anthonisamy , T. Kannupandi and T. Balasubramanian
  The diversity of the crabs in the Pichavaram mangroves for the first time has shown that there are 46 species of crabs from the five different stations. The neritic zone (Chinnavaikal) was rich in species composition (35 species). The freshwater zone was poor in species composition (14 species) and population density. Among the crab species Sesarma and Uca species were dominant in almost all the stations. Grapsid crabs were the most dominant species. Neritic and Avicennia zones showed more number of crab species but less number of species was noted in slightly saline zone. The substrate suitability, tidal inundations mangroves distribution and salinity were the possible factors for distribution of crabs in Pichavaram mangroves.
  A. Sundaramanickam , S. Vijayalakhsmi and T. Balasubramanian
  The tsunami on 26th December 2004 caused extensive damage to coastal communities and affected many marine ecosystem in Southern regions of India and Andaman and Nicobar Islands affecting 2,260 km of coastline. The most affected regions were the State of Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. The present research analyzes the impact of tsunami on finfish eggs and larvae and its distribution patterns. It deals how the tsunami impinges directly on ichthyoplankton ecology. After the tsunami effect, the eggs and larvae samples were collected and compared with previous year data of the same month (January 2004 and January 2005). We selected five stations, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 km distance from the shoreline. During the present study a total of 1067 eggs and 285 larvae belonging to 29 families and 57 species were sorted and identified. The pre and post tsunami collection shows the significant variation on eggs and larvae distribution. During pre tsunami the zooplankton biomass was highly correlated with ichthyoplankton density with all the five station significant at 1% level (p-value <0.01) but there is no correlation observed in the post tsunami samples.
  R. Periyanayagi , V. Sasikala , R. Venkatesan , R. Karthikayen and T. Balasubramanian
  Impact of industrial pollution on water quality and phytoplankton population was done for a period of one year in Uppanar estuary at three location (Ia, Ib and Ic) and open sea. Water quality and phytoplankton diversity and distribution patterns indicated that, the water quality of this environment was highly polluted. Higher levels of nutrients, heavy metals, primary productivity, chlorophyll a and total carotenoid content in station Ia indicated a possibility for eutrophication, which also confirmed by the dominance of phytoplankton Asterionella japonica and Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii. In addition to that the species diversity was also very low when compared to open sea.
  R. Thavasi , S. Jayalakshmi , T. Balasubramanian and Ibrahim M. Banat
  The present study deals with the hydrocarbon degrading potential of a marine nitrogen fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum isolated from Tuticorin harbor (Lat. 08o45`N; Long. 78o13`E). Degradation of crude oil (58%) and emulsification (D610) of waste motor oil (1.51), crude oil (1.43), pea nut oil (1.39), diesel (0.69), kerosene (0.81), Naphthalane (0.36), Anthracene (0.33) and xylene (0.42) indicated its potentiality in utilization of various hydrocarbons. Growth of Azotobacter chroococcum in a mineral medium with 0.5% crude oil as sole carbon source resulted maximum cell density at 96 h with an OD value of 0.333. At the end of 96 h, the cell count was 4.5x109 CFU mL-1 and 2.5 mg mL-1 of biomass. The biosurfactant production was found to be 1 mg mL-1 at 96 h. The total nitrogen fixed was 4.2 mg L-1. Two plasmids were found with molecular weight of 4788 and 2400 base pairs, respectively. Loss of biodegradation and biosurfactant production after plasmid curing was observed, which confirmed that, the biosurfactant production and biodegradation process were plasmid mediated. Results of the present study revealed the possibility of using marine nitrogen fixing hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and their biosurfactants in the abatement of marine oil pollution.
  R. Karthikeyan , S. Vijayalakshmi and T. Balasubramanian
  Attempts have been made to quantify the heavy metal and heavy metal resistant bacteria in the two stations in Uppanar estuary (Lat 11°43’ Long 79° 49’). The distribution of selected heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu and Zn) and the level of metals in the sediment was in the order of Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg. The existence of profound seasonal variation in the distribution of metals and heavy metal resistant bacteria in the sediments was observed. The metals and their resistant bacteria were maximum during monsoon and minimum during summer. The higher level of metal concentration and bacterial population were recorded near common effluent discharge from SIPCOT industrial complex, as it receives more quantities of industrial waste.
  R. Venkatesan , R. Karthikayen , R. Periyanayagi , V. Sasikala and T. Balasubramanian
  Cultured marine diatom, Rhizosolenia alata (Brightwell) were freeze dried and extracted with solvents such as acetone, chloroform, chloroform: methanol (1:1), methanol: distilled water (4:1) and distilled water. The extracts were screened against 7 human pathogenic bacteria for their antibacterial activity. All the organic solvents showed activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum activity in chloroform against Proteus vulgaris and minimum in chloroform: methanol against Staphylococcus aureus. However, there was no activity in distilled water extracts against all the pathogens tested.
 
 
 
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