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Articles by R. Heidari
Total Records ( 15 ) for R. Heidari
  H. Moeini Alishah , R. Heidari , A. Hassani and A. Asadi Dizaji
  Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an annual herb plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family that is used as a drug, spice and fresh vegetable. In order to study the effects of different levels of water stress on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple basil, a pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with six treatments and three replications in growth chamber. The different levels of water stress were 100 (control or non-stress), 90, 80, 70, 60 and 50% of field capacity. The results of statistical analysis showed that water stress has significant effects on morphological and biochemical characteristics. As the soil water content decreased, the plant height, stem diameter, number and area of leaves, Leaf Area Index (LAI), herb yield and leaf chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll) decreased but the amounts of anthocyanin and proline increased.
  E. Nikkhah , M. Khayamy , R. Heidari and R. Jamee
  Anthocyanins are natural pigments widely distributed in nature. Anthocyanin color molecules are a subclass of flavonoids. They are responsible for the reds, purples and blues in many flowers, fruits and vegetables. Fruits and berries are the most sample sources of anthocyanins in nature. Berries and fruits are an important part of the Finnish diet. In many researches the positive effect of fruit and berry intake on human health has been reported. Anthocyanins are considered to contribute to the healthiness of fruits and berries for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties for example. Anthocyanins can also improve the nutritional value of processed foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins in the food products. However, the stability of anthocyanins becomes most significant also in this case, as in the case of color quality. In this study the anthocyanin pigment was extracted from the three different berries (Morus nigra L., Morus alba var. nigra and Fragaria L.). Using the soaking and wetting in ethanol (1% acidified). The extracted anthocyanin pigments then were exposed to three different concentration of sugar (sucrose) (20, 40 and 60%). Three groups of anthocyanin solutions keeping in darkness and refrigerator for 63 days and per 3 week, the quantity of anthocyanin absorbance recorded in 520 nm. In this study, according to statistical analysis, primary concentration (20%) of sugar (sucrose) has protective effect on Anthocyanins, but in higher concentration this effect is decreased.
  M.A. Bakhshayeshi , M. Khayami , R. Heidari and R. Jamei
  The anthocyanin pigments was extracted from the four Malus varieties such as M. domestica cv. red starking,M. domestica cv. red delicious, M. domestica cv. jonathan and M. domestica cv. abbasi mashhad using the soaking in Ethanol (1% acidified).The extracted anthocyanin pigments then were exposed to number of environmental factors which could destabilize the anthocyanin molecules. These environmental factors were included three different pH (1, .5 and 4), four various temperatures (5, 0, 0 and 40°C) and presence or absence of light.The results showed that increasing in pH, temperature or exposure to light is able to destruction the anthocyanin pigments. Another factor affecting the tolerance of anthocyanin towards the environmental condition is the role of different varieties. Among the various Malus varieties anthocyanin pigment in M. domestica cv. red starking, showed the greatest resistance to destruction by environmental conditions, other varieties followed: M. domestica cv. red delicious M. domestica cv. jonathan and M. domestica cv. abbasi mashhad consecutively.
  S. Tajdoost , T. Farboodnia and R. Heidari
  Recent molecular studies show that genetic factors of salt tolerance in halophytes exist in glycophytes too, but they are not active. If these plants expose to low level salt stress these factors may become active and cause plants acclimation to higher salt stresses. So because of the importance of these findings in this research the effect of salt pretreatment has been examined in Zea mays seedlings. To do the experiment four day old Zea mays seedlings (Var. single cross 704) pretreated with 50 mM NaCl for the period of 20 h. Then they were transferred to 200 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h. At the end of treatment roots and shoots of seedlings were harvested separately. The changes of K+- leakage, the amount of malondialdehyde, proline, soluble sugars and the Hill reaction rate were analyzed. The results indicated that the amount of K+- leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been increased because of salt-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane unstability. Soluble sugars and proline as osmoregulators has been increased in stress condition and in pretreated plants with NaCl were the highest. The rate of Hill reaction was reduced significantly in stressed plants. Therefore we concluded that salt stress causes serious physiological and biochemical damages in plants and salt pretreatment enhances tolerance mechanisms of plants and help them to tolerate salt stress and grow on salty environments.
  N. Naghshbandi , S. Zare , R. Heidari and S. Soleimani Palcheglu
  The aim of this research was to evaluate the amount of lead in the tissue of Astacus leptodactylus especially in their muscle which the consumed part of their body. In this study the crayfish was exposed to intermediate concentration of lead nitrate (500 μg L-1) for periods up to 3 weeks. In the first, second and third weeks bioaccumulation in various tissues was under investigation. The data of toxicological analysis obtained by the method of atomic absorption revealed that the levels of bioaccumulation of metal are different in various tissues of this crayfish. The accumulation of the lead in gills was the highest and in muscles was lowest degree. The amount of heavy metals in the tissues of crayfish was as follow. Gills>exoskeleton>hepatopancreas (digestive glands)>digestive tract>green gland>testis and ovary>muscles.
  N. Naghshbandi , S. Zare , R. Heidari and S. Razzaghzadeh
  Due to different human activities in the vicinities of Aras dam, various pollutants such as heavy metals are entered into the reservoir and thus polluting the aquatic ecosystem. As a result, this heavy metal is accumulated in the tissues of Astacus leptodoctylus, which is considered as one the abundant species of crayfish that has got important food values and is of economic importance due to its export to other countries. In this research, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of this animal is taken into consideration. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Ni, Co and Cr among the tissues of female and male Astacus leptodactylus has been determined. The highest concentration of Cu and Fe was found in the gills and the highest level of Zn was found in hepatopancreas. Besides, the highest Mn concentration was recognized in exoskeleton. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the male and female crayfish in the concentration of the heavy metals in their tissues, except for the concentration of some of the metals such as Fe in some of the tissues such as hepatopancreas.
  R. Heidari , S. Zareae and M. Heidarizadeh
  Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors show great potential as tools to engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. They are also drug-design targets for treatment of diabetes and digestion disorderes. These inhibitors also known as sensitizing agents in human. The numerous form of alpha-amylase inhibitors was reported. In this study alpha-amylase inhibitor was extracted from Iranian wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum v zarrin), precipitated and purified by anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. Electrophoresis of purified protein showed 0.66 relative mobility. Total hydrolytic activity of human salivary and bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase were inhibited 97.07% and 89.97% respectively by collected purified alpha-amylase inhibitor.
  S. Javadi , M. Ilkhnipour , R. Heidari and V. Nejati
  Foeniculum vulgare Mill belongs to the Umbelliferae family and is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses. The medicinal parts of the plant are the oil, the dried ripe fruit and the seeds. The objective of the study is to comparison the water-distilled essential oil of Iranian Foeniculum vulgare Mill seeds (Fennel) and Estradiol valerate for hypoglycaemic activities in rats. After oil analysis by GC, 5 components were identified in the oil. Among them, trans-anethole (72.67%) was the major component. Healthy female albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each including sham operated (control), animals receiving Foeniculum vulgare Mill essential oil (FEO 250, 500 mg kg-1) and estradiol valerate (5 mg kg-1) for 28 days. The findings showed that Foeniculum vulgare Mill essential oil (250 mg kg-1) reduce blood glucose even more than essential oil 500 mg kg-1 and Estradiol. Therefore, Foeniculum vulgare Mill has estrogenic activity on blood glucose level and this effect is dependent to dose. Also, can suggest that effect of essential oil on blood glucose level is due to trans-anethole.
  L.Z. Yadeghari , R. Heidari and J. Carapetian
  Soybean (Glycine max) is a tropical crop, but is also grown in temperate regions in middle spring to late summer. This crop has an important role in human diet. Cold temperature damage is a common problem for this plant in temperate regions. Physiological responses to chilling, including antioxidative enzyme activity, Relative Water Content (RWC) and soluble sugar contents were investigated in soybean to identify mechanisms of chilling tolerance. Plants were exposed to 15C (cold-acclimated) or 25C (nonacclimated) for 24 h, under 250 mol m-2s-1 Photosynthetically Active Radiations (PAR). Then all plants were exposed to 4C (chilling temperature) for 24h and allowed to recover at 25C for 24 h. We analyzed the activity of Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), Catalase (CAT) and Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) and soluble sugar content and RWC in both shoots and roots of soybean seedlings. It revealed that the activity of APX and CAT and GPX induced in leaves and roots. Increased activity in roots is important for cold tolerance as compared to shoots. The amount of RWC decreased in both roots and shoots, but soluble sugar content increased, especially in shoots as compared to control plants. Chilling sensitive soybean plants can be made tolerant to cold by cold acclimation.
  E. Nikkhah , M. Khayami , R. Heidari and I. Bernousi
  Anthocyanins are natural pigments widely distributed in nature. Anthocyanin color molecules are a subclass of flavonoids. They are responsible for the reds, purples and blues in many flowers, fruits and vegetables. Fruits and berries are the most sample sources of anthocyanins in nature. Berries and fruits are an important part of the Finnish diet. In many researches the positive effect of fruit and berry intake on human health has been reported. Anthocyanins are considered to contribute to the healthiness of fruits and berries for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties for example. Anthocyanins can also improve the nutritional value of processed foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins in the food products. However, the stability of anthocyanins becomes most significant also in this case, as in the case of color quality. In this study the anthocyanin pigment was extracted from the three different berries (Morus nigra L., Morus alba var. nigra and Fragaria L.). Using the soaking and wetting in ethanol (1% acidified). The extracted anthocyanin pigments then were exposed to three different concentration of SO2 (25, 50, 100 ppm). Three groups of anthocyanin solutions keeping in darkness and refrigerator for 63 days and per 3 week, the quantity of anthocyanin absorbance recorded in 520 nm.
  N. Fekri , M. Khayami , R. Heidari and R. Jamee
  Mucilage, a complex carbohydrate with a great capacity to absorb water, should be considered a potential source of industrial hydrocolloid.To examine moisture, dry weight, yield, ash and protein content, mucilaginous material were extracted from seeds by mixing the seeds with distilled water (1:20 w/v), stirring the seed-water mixtures for 3 h at 75C, separating the mucilage extract from the seeds by filtration through a muslin and were precipitated with 3 times its volumes of 96% ethanol. The precipitates were separated by centrifugation (6500 rpm, 15 min). The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test and compared in one significant levels of p< 0.05. The linseed mucilage had 4.57% moisture, 95.43% dry weight, 8.6% yield, 5.8% ash and 12.3% protein. The basil mucilage had 4.86% moisture, 95.14% dry weight, 2.07% yield, 0.84% ash and 10.9% protein. The dragon head mucilage had 4.93% moisture, 95.06% dry weight, 1.88% yield, 0.28% ash and 45.7% protein. The quince mucilage had 4.38% moisture, 95.62% dry weight, 10.9% yield, 8.24% ash and 20.9% protein. Results showed significant differences in yield mucilage content between flaxseed and quince with together and with basil and dragon head. Significant differences in ash content were observed between flaxseed and quince with basil and dragon head. The dragon head had significant difference in protein content with flaxseed, basil and quince.
  F. Ghezelbash , T. Farboodnia , R. Heidari and N. Agh
  In this study the effects of (20, 30, 40, 50 ppt) salinities and (2500, 4500, 6500 Lux) luminances on the changes of chlorophylls, carbohydrates, proline and proteins of unicellular microalga Tetraselmis chuii have been studied in the controlled conditions. The results indicated that the amounts of all of these parameters have been influenced by the salinity and light intensities. The amount of proteins have not been changed significantly in all cases. Carbohydrats and proline contents as osmoregulators have been increased in stress conditions. But the amount of chlorophylls have been reduced while carotenoids contents have been increased. So we conclude that as like as higher plants high and low (in halophytes) salinities and light intensities cause some biochemical changes in unicellular green microalgea. In many cases adaptation mechanisms to stress conditions are the same in them, such as increased accumulation of proline and carbohydrates and some changes in pigments and protein contents of the cells of organism. Due to these results and other similarities, perhaps higher plants have been originated from these green unicellular algae.
  F. Ghezelbash , T. Farboodnia , R. Heidari and N. Agh
  In this study, the effects of (20, 30, 40 and 50 ppt) salinities and (500, 2500, 4500 and 6500 lux) luminance on the changes of the amount of biomass and the growth rate of the microalgae Tetraselmis chuii. have been studied in the controlled conditions. The growth rate, has been expressed as the number of cells mL 1. The results have indicated that the growth rate of this microalgae has varied and influenced by the salinity and light intensities. In this research, growth rate has been decreased by the salinity and light intensity and the highest biomass was observed in 40 ppt salinity 4500 lux and the lowest was in 20 ppt salinity 500 lux. We conclude that as like as higher plants high and low (in halophytes) salinities and light intensities cause some changes in different phases of growth rate and other biochemical aspects in unicellular green microalgea. So to maintain such these researches help us to find out the best condition that suits for the growth and culture of microalgea specially those that more important economically and are used by other organisms in food chain.
  N. Fatahi , J. Carapetian and R. Heidari
  Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a composite plant. It’s flowers are an essential dye-stuff for preparing edible carthamin and safflower yellow dyes, which has been increasingly applied as a colour additive for processed foods as well as cosmetic rouges and medicinal tablets. A technique for the analysis of carthamin and Carthamus yellow is described. The teqnique involves the following 3 steps: Extraction, measurement of visible absorption spectrum of the color and thin-layer chromatography. Dried safflower powder was used for extraction of water soluble yellow and the water insoluble carthamin was obtainable through alkaline extraction, acidification and cellulose adsorption. The pigment extracts were identified by using thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometery. Spectrophotometeric absorption spectra in invisible wavelength showed the absorption maxima for carthamin red at 520 nm in acetone extraction. Similarly water soluble safflower yellow showed 405 nm absorption maxima. The Rf values were measured by thin-Layer chromatography. Because these dyes are natural and have clinical effects, they are potentially useful for dying different food products.
  N. Fatahi , . Carapetian and R. Heidari
  Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) belongs to composite family. Its florets contain edible carthamin and safflower yellow dyes. The pigments are very useful for dying foods and cosmetics. The natural pigments also have medicinal properties. In this research, external factors suspecting to influence the chemical nature of carthamin and safflower yellow in aqueous media were studied. Dried florets were powdered and used for the extraction of carthamin which was obtainable through alkaline extraction, acidification and cellulose adsorption. Also, dried safflower powder was used for extraction of water soluble yellow pigment. Aqueous solutions of the pigments were exposed to some external factors such as temperature (10, 30, 50 and 70°C), pH (below 2 and above 7), light (400 Lux and UV). The results showed at higher temperature carthamin was more readily decomposed, but safflower yellow isnt affected so much by the temperature. Occurring above and below the pH range in which carthamin is most stable (pH 3-5.5), increased degradation of the pigment. The pigments in aqueous solution were exposed to dark, visible and ultraviolet light. Loss of safflower yellow coloration increased. These results were studied spectrophotometerically to check patterns of stability of the pigments. Comparing the pigments indicates safflower yellow is more stable than carthamin in temperature and pH treatment, but carthamin is more stable than safflower yellow in light treatment. Most synthetic pigments have carcinogenic properties, whereas natural pigments have biological value and belong to natural components of food products.
 
 
 
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