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High penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units will have unfavorable impacts on the traditional fault location methods because the distribution system is no longer radial in nature and is not supplied by a single main power source. This study presents an automated fault location method using Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for a distribution system with DG units. In the proposed method, the fault type is determined first by normalizing the fault currents of the main source. Then to determine the fault location, two RBFNNs have been developed for various fault types. The first RBFNN is used for detraining fault distance from each source and the second RBFNN is used for identifying the exact faulty line. Several case studies have been used to verify the accuracy of the method. Furthermore, the results of RBFNN and the conventional Multi Layer Perception Neural Network (MLPNN) are also compared. The results showed that the proposed method can accurately determine the location of faults in a distribution system with several DG units.
Reducing time and efficient project execution is an objective in many industries and project management is one of the important keys for lead the company to this allegation. The project manager needs some tools for lead the firm to the success. Collaboration is one way to success and collaboration has many types, one kind is electronic collaboration. On the other hand, small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) are a part of manufacturing industries. Combining a literature review with our empirical experience we found that relationship between the project manager and related departments for production is essential for reducing time and cost in new product development. In this study, we describe about some definition of project management, E-collaboration, SMEs and new product and review some articles around this area.