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Articles by M. Shivazad
Total Records ( 13 ) for M. Shivazad
  R. Taherkhani , M. Shivazad , M. Zaghari and A. Zare Shahneh
  A chick bioassay with chemically defined amino acid (AA) diets was conducted to compare four different AA profiles: the NRC (1994), Feedstuff, Rhone Poulenc Animal Nutrition (RPAN) and Illinois Ideal Chick Protein (IICP) AA profiles. The ideal ratios of IICP, RPAN and Feedstuff calculated using digestible AA requirements and total AA requirements used for NRC. This battery study involved male and female chicks during 7 to 21 days of age. Indispensable AA were rationed to lysine according to requirement ratios presented in the four profiles. Digestible lysine set at 1.07 and 0.98 % of diet for male and female, respectively. All diets were kept isonitrogenous (2.6 % N) by varying levels of L-glutamic acid. All diets were checked to have at least 0.3 % proline and 0.6 % glycine. Diets for all profiles contained 3200 kcal ME/kg and a positive control diet was used according to NRC (1994) recommendations. Chicks fed a common corn-soybean meal diet for 160 h and were raised in the floor pen. Then chicks weighed individually and allocated to battery pens so that most uniformity among pens occurs. Four battery pens of five chicks were fed one of four different profiles or positive control diet in both sexes. Weight gain and feed intake were measured for each pen at day 21 and then feed:gain was calculated. Results indicate that chicks fed positive control diet weighed more (p< 0.5). Among semi purified diets chicks fed diets formulated with NRC (1994) ideal AA ratios had significantly (P< 0.5) better weight gain and feed:gain in both sexes relative to IICP and RPAN, but not to Feedstuff .RPAN had worst weight gain and feed:gain in females . Results of this experiment suggest that new ideal ratio of threonine (relative to lysine) in IICP for starter period may be under-estimated.
  M. Yousefi , M. Shivazad and I. Sohrabi-Haghdoost
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary factors on induction of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and its diagnosis methods with use of selected serum enzymes on Hy-line W-36 hens. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 6 treatment groups and 4 replicates each with ten hens from 94 to 106 wk of age. Three 28-d periods used for different dietary factors including:1) Control (C); 2) Low methionine (LM); 3) Low linoleic acid (LLA); 4) High energy (HE); 5) Low methionine, linoleic acid, choline and high energy (LM-LLA-LCH-HE) and 6) Low choline (LCH). Feed intake, body weight, egg production (EP), egg weight, egg quality, serum and liver parameters were measured at the end of each 28-d periods. Overall feed intake was significantly (P< 0.05) lower for the hens fed HE diets compared to the control. Overall egg weight was significantly (P< 0.05) lower for the hens fed LM and LM-LLA-LCH-HE compared to the control. Overall Liver weight was significantly (P< 0.05) higher for the hens fed LLA and LM-LLA-LCH-HE compared to the control. Liver hemorrhage score (LHS) was positively correlated (P< 0.05) with liver weight. Serum enzyme activities including: aspartate aminoteransferase (AST), alanine aminoteransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were not significantly affected by treatment groups. Although the AST enzyme activity was not significantly different, but it was numerically higher for all dietary treatments except HE diet. The results showed the effectiveness of dietary factors on induction of FLHS in laying hens. AST enzyme activity could be used for diagnosis of FLHS in laying hens.
  S. Khojasteh Shalmany and M. Shivazad
  An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Alcoholic Extract of Propolis (AEP) on Ross (308) broiler chicks performance. This experiment , was carried out in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg diet) for 6 weeks. Weight gain, feed consumption , feed conversion ratio and mortality rate at the end of 3rd, 6th wk and whole periods (0 to 6 wk ) were compared statistically. Results indicated that in all periods, average weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency were significantly higher for propolis fed birds and inclusion of Propolis also reduced mortality rate in comparison to control diet.
  M. Toghyani , M. Shivazad , A.A. Gheisari and S.H. Zarkesh
  The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of chromium picolinate on performance, carcass traits and hematological values of broilers in heat stress condition. Two hundreds and forty male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments supplemented with 0 (control), 500, 1000 or 1500 ppb chromium in the form of chromium picolinate. Each treatment consisted of 4 pens with 15 birds in each pen. The experiment was conducted during summer and all birds were kept under temperature of 33±3°C. Feed intake and body weight were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. At 21 and 42 days of age blood samples were collected from the wing vein of three birds per replicates to determine hematological values. Twelve chicks were slaughtered from each treatment at 42 days of age, and abdominal fat pad, liver, heart, gall bladder and pancreas were removed, weighed and expressed as a percentage of live body weight. Body weight of broilers fed supplemental chromium for 21 and 42 days increased significantly (P< 0.05). Body weight gain and feed intake of broilers fed supplemental chromium increased (P< 0.05). Feed conversion of broilers was not affected by different levels of supplemental chromium. Chromium supplementation increased carcass yield and decreased abdominal fat contents. The hemoglobin, MCH, MCHC were increased by 1000 ppb chromium supplementation. The results from this study suggest that, supplemental chromium, alleviated heat stress related depression in performance, carcass traits and hematological values of broiler chicks.
  A. Zarei , M. Shivazad and A. Mirhadi
  Different levels of protein from two kind of Artemia meal include Artemia meal from Urmia lake and Artemia meal from earth ponds beside Urmia lake with levels of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 percent replaced to prue fish meal protein. The experimental design was completely randomized with factorial method, include 10 treatments and 3 repetitions that in each repetition there were 10 one day-old male broilers from Ross 308 strain. This experiment was performed in 7 weeks and during and end of it, traits that related to broiler performance and carcass, was measured and analyzed. Results showed that effect of kind of Artemia meal and effect of level of protein replacement wasn`t significant for feed intake. But interaction between this two was significant for this trait (P< 0.05). The highest feed intake belong to Urmia lake Artemia meal treatment with 50% level of replacement and the lowest feed intake related to treatment of without Artemia meal (contain 5% fish meal). For body weight gain and feed conversion ratio, effect of kind of Artemia meal and effect of level of protein replacement and effect of interaction between this two weren`t significant. These effects weren`t significant for all dressing traits and gastro intestinal parts exception for femur percent that treatment of without Artemia meal (contain 5% fish meal) had a lowest percent to comparison with other treatments for this traits.
  B. Navidshad , M. Shivazad , A. Zare Shahneh and G. Rahimi
  This experiment carried out to study the effects of dietary fat saturation on performance and serum thyroid hormones of broilers under free or skip a day nutrition at 18-28 days of age. We used 720 male Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design with a 2*4 factorial arrangement with 3 replicate and 30 chicks for each replicate. Experiment factors were: 1- skip a day or free feeding at days 10-28 of age and, 2- diets with different unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (2, 3.5, 5 and 6.5) formulated using different levels of sunflower oil and tallow. At 28 and 42 days of age, weight gain and feed consumption recorded and blood samples were taken. SAS software used for Variance analysis and means comparing. Skip a day nutrition at days 18-28 of age significantly reduced feed intake and weight gain and increased feed conversion, But free nutrition at days 29-42 of age removed this differences. At day 28, diet with unsaturated to saturated ratio of 6.5 significantly reduced feed intake and weight gain and increased feed conversion. At day 42 of age dietary fat type didn`t have any significant effect on feed intake and weight gain but altered feed conversion as a manner same to day 28 of age. Skip a day nutrition significantly decreased T3 and increased T4 levels at day 28 of age but this effects were disappeared after re-feeding at day 42 of age. This survey showed that feed restriction didn`t affect bird`s ability to utilize fats with different degrees of saturation. Fat type and feed restriction affect broilers performance separately without any interaction. Dietary fat saturation didn`t have any significant effect on serum thyroid hormones levels, while feed restriction have a pronounce effect.
  A. Nobakht , M. Shivazad , M. Chamany and A.R. Safameher
  This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary electrolyte balance on performance and eggshell quality of laying hens in heat stress condition. four diets were formulated using different inclusions of NaCl, NaHCO3, KHCO3 and NH4Cl to give the dietary electrolyte (DEB) as 0, 120, 240 and 360 mEq/kg, and fed to laying hens from 55 weeks to 65 weeks of age exposed to heat - stress environment. Egg production, feed intake, water consumption, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by the diets of various DEB (P>0.05). Among egg parameters shell weight/surface area, shell weight, shell thickness and egg specific gravity were significantly affected by DEB (P< 0.01). In conclusion, increasing dietary electrolyte balance to 360 mEq/kg in laying hens rations under heat stress condition in late period of production can improve egg quality.
  H. Aghdam Shahriar , M. Shivazad , M. Chamani , K. Nazer Adl and Y. Ebrahim Nezhad
  This study carried out to evaluate the effects of fat type and different levels of vitamin E on the performance and some of the egg characters of broiler breeding hens. Ninety broiler breeder hens (Ross 308 strain) at 27 weeks of age were fed in a 23 factorial trial (4% canola oil and tallow with 0, 75 and 150 mg kg 1 of vitamin E) in 8 weeks period. At the end of the experiment no significant differences were found in body weight, feed intake, feed conversion rate, number and weight of eggs, laying percentage and hatchability variables between fat type and vitamin E treatments. There were no significant differences in biochemical characters of eggs including cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA. The difference between levels of eggs vitamin E, linoleic and linolenic acids (p< 0.01), total fat percentage and oleic acids (p< 0.05) were significant, while in eggs arachidonic and stearic acid there were no significant difference. The results showed that eggs fatty acids profile were significantly influenced (mainly in the linoleic and linolenic acids) by fat type and vitamin E levels of diet. In a conclusion, it was found that the fat type and vitamin E levels could be effective in the egg fatty acids profile and vitamin E content and fat source do not limit vitamin E absorption, although they may increase its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract.
  A. Safameher and M. Shivazad
  The amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks was examined by the dietary addition of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (SCE). Saccharomyces cerevisiae incorporated into the diet at 1 g kg 1 was evaluated for its ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 1 and 2 ppm Aflatoxins (AF) on Ross broiler chicks from 1days to 42 days of age. The AF treatments significantly decreased feed consumption and body-weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio (p< 0.05). Serum cholestrol, total protein and albumin decreased significantly (p< 0.05) in diets contaminated with aflatoxin. Compared to controls, the addition of SCE to an AF-containing diet significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AF on body-weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cholestrol, albumin and total protein. The AF fed groups had higher serum activities of the enzymes LDH and AST and decreased activity of ALP. The addition of SCE to an AF-containing diet reversed the effect of the toxin on the activities of serum enzymes. These results suggest that SCE reduced the adverse effects of AF and should be helpful in a solution to the aflatoxicosis problem in poultry.
  A. Nobakht , M. Shivazad , M. Chamany and A.R. Safameher
  This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance (DEB = Na+ + K+-Cl-) on the performance and eggshell quality of layers in their early laying period. Two hundred fifty six Hy-Line strain laying hens, 24-34 weeks of age, were randomly assigned into four treatment. The DEB levels were 0, 120, 240 and 360 mEq kg 1 and were obtained by addition of NaCl, NaHCO3, KHCO3 and NH4CL as needed. Egg production, feed intake, egg mass and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, whereas eggshell quality was significantly affected (p< 0.05). The shell specific gravity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell ash and shell weight/surface area were increased with increasing DEB from 120-360 mEq kg 1 relative to the control diet. It was concluded that high rate DEB (360 mEq kg 1) can improve eggshell quality in the early laying period.
  Y. Ebrahim Nezhad , M. Shivazad , R. Taherkhani and K. Nazeradl
  A synergistic effect between Citric Acid (CA) and Microbial Phytase (MP) in improving phytate Phosphorus (P) utilization have been reported in broiler previously. In order to evaluate such additive effect in laying hen, an experiment was conducted using 224 Hyline-W 36 laying hen. Experiment began at 53 w of age and lasted in 64 w of age. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement (0 and 300 IU MP and 0, 20 and 40 g citric acid per kg of diet). Four replicate of 8 hens per each were fed dietary treatments including 1) Positive Control diet (PC) which meet NRC recommended available P level (0.3% available P), 2) Negative Control diet (NC) that was similar to PC diet except that available P was reduced by 0.2 %, 3) NC+300 IU microbial phytase per kg of diet, 4) NC+20 g CA per kg of diet, 5) NC+20 g CA+300 IU microbial Phytase per kg of diet, 6) NC+40 g CA per kg of diet, 7) NC+40 g CA+300 IU microbial Phytase per kg of diet. Dietary supplementation of MP to low available P diets significantly improved egg production and restored it to the level similar to PC group, but CA supplemented diets failed to create such effects. NC and diets with only CA supplementation had significantly lower feed intake compared to PC and MP supplemented diets. MP supplemented diets were used as efficiently as the PC diet, but CA had any effects on feed efficiency. Results obtained in our study suggests that contrary to the effects of CA in broiler chicks, CA couldn=t enhance phytase effectiveness in laying hen, probably due to high levels of Ca in laying hens diets.
  M. Amiri Andi , M. Shivazad , S.A. Pourbakhsh , M. Afshar , H. Rokni , N.E. Shiri , A. Mohammadi and Z. Salahi
  Broiler breeders were allocated at random to one of seven experimental diets containing graded levels of supplementary vitamin E (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 IU kg-1 diet) between 26-35 weeks of age. Egg production, egg weight, fertility, livability and hatchability (30 and 35 weeks of age) were not influenced by the level of vitamin E in the breeder diet. But birds receiving 40 IU of vitamin E kg-1 diet had higher hatchability of fertile eggs compared to 0 and 20 IU of vitamin E kg-1 groups at 35 weeks of age (90.79 vs. 85.09 and 86.60%, respectively). Dietary levels of vitamin E did not affect antibody titer (IgG) against Newcastle disease virus at 35 weeks of age. Antibody titer of day old chicks from hens receiving 60 IU of vitamin E kg-1 were higher (p≤0.05) than chicks from hens fed 0 and 20 IU of vitamin E. At 35 weeks of age (not at 31 weeks of age), Hugh units of eggs were higher (p≤0.05) in hens fed 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 IU of vitamin E kg-1 compared to 0 IU of vitamin E kg-1 (87.06, 92.21, 93.89, 93.25, 94.61 and 93.09, respectively). Age had negative effect on Hugh units of eggs (p≤0.01). The results of this experiment suggest that the vitamin E requirement of broiler breeders for persisting of hatchability may be 40 IU kg-1 and for maximizing passive transfer of antibody from breeder to progeny may be higher.
  Marziyeh Ghafari , M. Shivazad and M. Zaghari
  In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method for formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 female broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7x2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different levels of energy (7 energy levels) and formulation methods of diets AA requirements (total and digestible). Results showed that feed consumption decreased by increasing level of energy. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were promoted by increasing level of energy. Formulation methods of AA requirement had significant effect on cumulative feed consumption, weight gain (in grower period) and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Interaction effects of independent factors affected on cumulative feed consumption, body weight and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Abdominal fat pad were significantly lower in chicks fed diets formulated on digestible AA basis. Energy content of diets affected fat pad significantly. Abdominal fat pad increased significantly as ME content of diets increased. Results showed that formulation of diet on digestible AA contained the low energy resulted in promotion of performance.
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