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The on-farm trial was carried out to know the effect of inter-cropping Dhanicha (Sesbania aculeata L.) with direct seeded upland rice for two consecutive years. Sole aus rice with four various populations of S. aculeata was evaluated on the basis of productivity and economic return. The results showed that although the yield of aus rice slightly reduced when S. aculeata were grown, but its seed and stick value increased much higher economic return. On the other hand, unseen benefit of S. aculeata regarding the improvement of soil health and control of insect in the rice field was emphasized. So, in the aus rice field, the population of S. aculeata (3,333 to 6,666 plants ha-1) could be grown successfully.