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To determine which aerobic bacteria exert a marked effect on Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia-Pyometra complex (CEH-P) and to determine from where these bacteria originate. About 48 privately owned bitches were diagnosed with CEH-P. Healthy vagina and uterine samples were obtained with cotton pledgets and cumulative uterine fluids from CEH-P cysts were collected with a syringe in utero to isolate and identify aerobic bacterial. A total of 99 isolates were identified and the primary aerobe in the CEH-P bitches was found to be Escherichia coli (33/99). The levels of estrode in bitches with endometritis and in bitches with pyometra and estrus were higher than the levels in diestrus bitches (p<0.01). When ranked according to the levels of progesterone in a descending order (i.e., from high to low levels), the ranking was bitches with pyometra, bitches with endometritis, bitches in estrus and bitches in diestrus. These results suggest that in addition to common pathogenic bacteria differential in every area, casual bacterial contamination invariably occurred in bitches with CEH-P and the primary infection ascended from the vagina when the cervix was open. The researchers also inferred that both estrode and progesterone levels in CEH-P bitches were increased relative to the levels in healthy bitches and were even higher than that of the levels observed in estrus bitches. Estrode and progesterone pretreatment and uterine mucosa damage were interpreted as the preconditions for bacterial infection. The hormone levels in CEH-P bitches were similar to the endocrinal characteristics of peripartum bitches.