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In-vitro antibacterial activity of marine ascidian Phallusia arabica was investigated against urinary tract infection bacterial pathogens using disc diffusion method. The crude ethyl acetate extract was more active exhibiting a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity than that of the crude methanol extract against each of the microbes tested. Maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Proteus mirabilis in crude ethyl acetate extract (1 mg mL-1 concentration) and the minimum inhibition zone (1.5 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in methanol extract (1 mg mL-1 concentration). The range of MICs and MBCs were high in ethyl acetate extract and it was low in the methanol extract. This result suggest that P. arabica can be used as effective inhibitor of urinary tract infection pathogens making them applicable to medical devices and antimicrobial control systems.
An investigation was made on the juveniles of a commercially important and cultivable species of second largest freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii for its responses to unilateral eyestalk ablation, different diets and some biochemical aspects. Protein content of the adult Artemia fed animals was higher than that of artificial feeds 1 and 2, oyster and earthworm fed eyestalk ablated prawns. In intact control animals, protein content was differ significantly when the animals were fed with different feeds except the artificial feed 1 and oyster. Eyestalk ablation had no significant effect on the body carbohydrate content of M. malcolmsonii fed with different feeds. The lipid content of the eyestalk ablated and intact control animals fed with adult Artemia showed significantly higher values when compared to other feeds. The content of free amino acids in eyestalk ablated animal fed with adult Artemia and earthworm was significantly higher from those fed with other feeds. Intact control animals offered with adult Artemia showed significantly higher contents of free amino acids as compared to those fed with other feeds. The eyestalk ablation had no effect on water content. The ash content of the eyestalk ablated animals fed with oyster and earthworm was significantly higher than those fed with other feeds. The intact control animals showed higher ash content when fed with earthworm, oyster and artificial feed 2 than those fed with other feeds. The energy content of the eyestalk ablated and intact control animals fed with adult Artemia was significantly higher than those fed with other feeds.
Totally 156 species of marine phytoplankton were identified of which Diatoms formed the dominant group followed by Dinoflagellates, Blue Green and Greens. Phytoplankton population density and species diversity were high during the summer season and were invariably sparse during the monsoon season at both the stations. Species richness and evenness of phytoplankton showed an inverse relationship with the dominance index. Distribution of chlorophyll a concentration closely followed the phytoplankton population density and gross primary productivity. Species composition, population density, primary productivity and chlorophyll a concentration was more in the coast due to higher number of autochthonous coastal marine species in addition to allochthonous species from the estuary.