Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by C. Stavrianos
Total Records ( 40 ) for C. Stavrianos
  C. Stavrianos , N. Aggelakopoulos , P. Stavrianou , O. Pantelidou , L. Vasiliadis and L. Grigoropoulos
  The origin of traumatic injuries from bite is often an additional problem for the specialist who must determine whether this dental imprint is caused by human, animal or some other mechanical impact and simply resembles dental imprint. Further identification problems can be raised while trying to attribute of a specific morphological feature of postmortem damage to a distinct species of animal.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , I. Stavrianou and P. Kafas
  Clinical evaluation of the accuracy of an electronic apex locator, Ray-Pex 5, was carried out in 85 single-rooted teeth with vital pulp tissue. The normal procedure was followed, which included a standard endodontic access opening, pulp removal and irrigation of the root canal with 5.25% NaOCl. The working length of the selected teeth was estimated with Ray-Pex 5, using a size 15 K-file. The files were cemented at the measured working length and the teeth were extracted. It is thought that absolute comparisons could be made only with the actual working length directly measured after extraction of the teeth. For the teeth where the tip of the file was not visible at the apical foramen, the Berman-Fleischman technique was used. In locating the apical foramen Ray Pex 5 was 95% accurate, with clinically acceptable estimation within±0.5 mm. Ray Pex 5 was accurate 97.5% of the time to±1 mm. The significance of the difference between the electronically and microscopically assessed sample was found at the level of p<0.01 when paired t-test performed (95% CI for the difference -0.496, -0.204). The electronic device used for this study was found reliable in estimating the real length of the tooth root minimizing the need for multiple periapical x-rays during endodontic treatment.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , L. Vasiliadis , P. Dagkalis , I. Stavrianou and N. Petalotis
  Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body and with dentin, cementum and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth in vertebrates. The unique microstructure of enamel resides fossilized tracks of its growth process. These tracks represent the incremental growth of enamel. Forensic odontology is a vital and integral part of forensic science. Essential data could be derived by the study of the enamel structure and contribute in dental identification, age estimation procedures and archaeology, anthropology and forensic researches. Further advances in image analysis and computer technology would enhance the knowledge and improve the accuracy of methods used in Forensic odontology field.
  L. Vasiliadis , C. Stavrianos , P. Dagkalis , Ks. Parisi , O. Pantelidou and E. Samara
  Aim of the present study is to indicate the factors contributing in changes of the formation and deposition of root dentine which results in translucency of the root dentine. The root dentine translucency of human teeth is already proved to be a significant process in age estimation, since the creation of sclerotic dentine is strictly related with the aging of the individual. Different factors seem to affect this deposition with the environmental, one playing the most significant extraneous factor, changing the rate and type of creation of translucent root dentine. The mechanical factors are analyzed in order to imprint all the factors that may interfere with the deposition process and as a result in the proper age estimation.
  C. Stavrianos , D. Tatsis , P. Stavrianou , A. Karamouzi , G. Mihail and D. Mihailidou
  Now-a-days in the civilized societies, one of the most reprehensible and criminal actions is considered to be child abuse either it appears as physical or psychological violence. The clinician is the 1st to verify signs and symptoms that can lead in the diagnosis of an abused child. This happens because the most common form of abuse is bite mark which derives from physical, sexual abuse or even neglect. For this reason, the role of dentist is important to ascertain such a background through clinical examination. The aim of this study to highlight the clinical evidence that a dentist should take under consideration. The intercanine distance is a clinical factor that contributes in the early assessment of the proper identification of the assaulter since, the distance differs from one person to another and mostly from children to adults. Thus, the age of the perpetrator will be defined and the self-inflicted traumas will be excluded. In conclusion, a possible judicial process will be facilitated from the dentist’s deposition always with the pre-requisite of a full scientific acknowledge
  L. Vasiliadis , C. Stavrianos , P. Dagkalis , Ks. Parisi , I. Stavrianou and D. Tatsis
  Different methods have been proposed in the course of time of age estimation via human biological characteristics. One of them is the measurement of dentine translucency. The amount of transparent dentine that is deposited through time is strongly related with the age of the person. Some controversy on the accuracy of the method has been stated, thus it is evident by numerous studies that the sclerotic dentin that is formed during aging due to altering rates of mineralization has successfully lead in age estimation of experimental subjects. Finally, the results of the past studies are coherent with the current literature, proving that age estimation via root dentine translucency is possible in clinical basis.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , C. Papadopoulos , O. Pantelidou , K. Tolidis and P. Dagkalis
  In certain circumstances, teeth may appear with a discoloration in post-mortem examinations. This phenomenon is called pink teeth. Pink teeth are caused by release of hemosiderin due to the breakdown of haemoglobin of red cells inside the pulp. The hemosiderin then is released inside the dentine tubules and discolour the teeth. Nevertheless, this situation can be reported in living humans, in endondontically treated teeth and in other conditions in primary teeth, etc. There are many reports of pink teeth in the literature, thus the usage of proof in Forensic odontology for a positive identification of a body remains under controversy.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Eliades and I. Stavrianou
  Chronic apical periodontitis of mandibular premolars and molars teeth is quite common phenomenon. In this case report, it is described an unusual case of chronic periodontitis of a right mandibular second premolar tooth in proximity to mental foramen which was the cause of a dysaesthesia in the distribution of the mental nerve. The reported symptoms of sensory disturbance disappeared 3 months after conventional endodontic treatment associated with antibiotic therapy. One year later the tooth was still asymptomatic and the resolution of mental nerve paresthesia was completed.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Eliades and A. Kokkas
  A number of reports have been published concerning neuralgia and other complications of the inferior alveolar nerve following a penetration of root canal filling or endo-file into or close to the mandibular canal. Endodontic infections of posterior maxillary teeth sometimes spread to the maxillary sinus, generating severe complications. Also, endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus include the introduction of endodontic instruments and materials beyond the apices of posterior teeth in close proximity to the sinus. Clinicians should be aware of the fact that endodontic instruments and filling materials (solid or liquid) can be extended in such a degree that can lead to neurological or sinus complications, i.e., dysaesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve or sinusitis, due to the proximity of the apices of the mandibular molars and premolars to the inferior alveolar canal and the maxillary posterior teeth to the sinus floor membrane. An interesting and unusual case of iatrogenic complications due to madly endodontic therapies is presented.
  C. Stavrianos , P. Kafas , H. Katsikogiani , G. Tretiakov and A. Kokkas
  Missing children is a multi-dimensional problem with raising percentages of children and young people that become missed lately. This fact has led all the relevant authorities to more coordinated efforts in order to facilitate the investigations and support the parents. Additionally in these procedures forensic odontology can play a very important role by the means that are now available. Parents in cooperation with their dentist can collect child’s individual data by recording dental radiographs, facial photographs, studying casts, dental histories, teeth present, distinguishing features of oral structures and bite registrations. Toothprints, a trademarked product is an arch-shaped thermoplastic dental impression wafer which depicts child’s individual characteristics. In addition collection of saliva DNA and engravation of serial number in their teeth can aid in the identification of a missing child. The Dentist is obliged by the law to provide copies of all the Dental Records in case of a missing child. A detailed dental record, updated at recall appointments, establishes an excellent database of confidential, state-of-the-art child identification information that can be retrieved easily stored safely and updated properly. The American Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (AAPD), recognizing the role that dental records play in forensic identification, encourages dental practitioners and administrators of child identification programs to implement simple practices that can aid in the investigation and identification of missing and unknown infants, children and adolescents.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Kokkas , H. Katsikogiani and G. Tretiakov
  Child sexual abuse is a form of child maltreatment with a variety of sexual offences which has intervened widely in modern societies. It is a morbid phenomenon which has turned to be one of the most high-profile crimes, outlawed in every developed country. The purpose of this report is to review the dental aspects in the identification of child sexual assault. The symptoms vary and may be developed either as psychological alteration or as physical signs or as a combination of both. One can notice oral injuries (e.g., Orofacial trauma) or infections as a sign of a preceded sexual abuse as the oral cavity is a frequent site of this kind of assault. Oral, perioral and pharyngeal gonorrhea in prepubertal children is another pathognomic sign. Child maltreatment may also affect its behaviour in the dental office. It is common sense that treating a dental patient involves valuation of its general medical condition and not only looking inside its mouth. Injuries inflicted by one’s mouth may leave clues regarding the time and nature of the injury as well as the identity of the perpetrator. The contribution of the dentist can be remarkable as he can be the first person that comes in touch with the child, recognising signs and symptoms of preceded sexual maltreatment. After identifying such conditions he is obliged by the law to refer the child for further and meticulous examination by a specialist doctor and provide the authorities with all the dental and medical documents that he possesses.
  A. Eliades , C. Stavrianos , A. Kokkas , P. Kafas and I. Nazaroglou
  A number of reports have been published concerning laser applications in oral and facial practice. Laser performance is a common surgical procedure in the field of oral surgery, implant dentistry, endodontic treatment and periodontic therapy as well. Fibroma excision is a procedure usually done for aesthetic and functional reasons. The role of laser surgery in the oral cavity is well established. The use of diode laser removing a fibroma is currently under investigation. The benefits of oral-laser surgery i.e., a relatively bloodless surgical and post-surgical course, minimal swelling and scarring and reduction of post-surgical pain are discussed. An interesting case of removal of a fibroma with a 808 nm diode laser is presented.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Kokkas , E. Andreopoulos and A. Eliades
  The purpose of this study is to review and present the aims and the applications of forensic dentistry. Dental science plays a vital role in the detection and solution of crime. Forensic dentistry compares and demonstrates post or ante-mortem dental findings to identify an unknown body. Facial reconstruction is a method used in forensic anthropology to aid in the identification of skeletal remains. Age estimation is a process of particular interest in cases of forensic dentistry. Root dentine translucency of single-rooted teeth is the only parameter giving accurate results for age estimation. Also, a dental practitioner must be able to identify and report to the authorities any kind of child or elder abuse and neglect. Thus, the analysis of bite marks is a major aspect for Forensic dentistry. Terrorism and mass disasters are sad realities of modern life. The Forensic dentist has the obligation to know how to provide immediate health care and how to collect and extract all findings. However, physicians receive minimal training in oral health, dental injury and diseases. This is the reason why they may not detect dental aspects of Forensic dentistry. Therefore, physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate so as to increase the prevention, detection and treatment of these conditions.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Kokkas , A. Eliades and E. Andreopoulos
  The purpose of the study is to review and present the aims and the applications of Forensic dentistry. Bite marks are usually seen in cases involving sexual assault, murder, child abuse and can be a major factor in leading to a conviction. Bite marks can be found anywhere on a body particularly on soft and fleshy tissue such as the stomach or buttocks. In addition, bite marks can be found on objects present at the scene of the crime. However, there are two types of family violence, the child abuse and the adult violence in the house or marital abuse or elder abuse. These types of family violence can happen to any of environment. Child abuse, intimate partner abuse and elder abuse victims often have signs of injury or bite marks that are readily visible to dentists. Dentists have a moral and legal obligation to recognize and report suspected abuse. It is important to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity and ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against child abuse. The dentists are likely to be in contact with these individuals who have been exposed to this kind of violence. The dental team that is alert to the fact that many elderly or vulnerable person or child are abused and that many of these abused individuals have injuries to the head and around the mouth may be able to identify an abused person and institute steps that might save someone’s life. Finally, the important role of forensic odontology in archaeological research is reported.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Zouloumis , E. Samara , D. Tatsis and A. Eliades
  When a child presents for examination particularly if there is any evidence of severe or repeated trauma involved, the history may alert the dentist to the possibility of a child abuse. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. These behaviors are serious crimes, both as misdemeanors and felonies, punishable by arrest and imprisonment. Dentists should be aware that physical or sexual abuse may result in oral or dental injuries or conditions that sometimes can be confirmed by laboratory findings. When questions arise or when consultation is needed, a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology can ensure appropriate testing, diagnosis and treatment. This case report aims to present a case of a physically abused child 12 years old. The examination revealed fracture of the left ocular area and as a result the adipose tissue all around the eyeball fall like a drop into the sinus. The CT scan of the facial skull was done so as to detect the consequences of the fracture. In conclusion, the ability to properly identify suspicious injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck of a child is imperative for dentists. Dentists are encouraged to be knowledgeable about such findings and their significance and to meticulously observe and document them.
  K. Louloudiadis , C. Stavrianos , A. Louloudiadis and A. Eliades
  When a child presents for examination particularly if there is any evidence of severe or repeated trauma involved, the history may alert the dentist to the possibility of a child abuse. Perhaps because crying or speaking emanates from the mouth, this area is frequently the focus of attack in cases of violent child abuse. The main step in identification of suspected child abuse and neglect is the general physical assessment of the child for example the poor nutritional state and subnormal growth, the extraoral injuries, bruises or abrasions and bite marks and the oral lesions i.e., loosened or fractured teeth, tears of the labial or lingual frenula, fractures of jaws and trauma to the tongue. This case report aims to present a case of a physically abused child, two and a half years old from his mother. The examination revealed marks of four fingers of attacker’s right hand on this victim’s cheek from a hard slap to the face. In conclusion, the ability to properly identify suspicious injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck of a child is imperative for dentists.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Eliades and A. Kokkas
  During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. Because of their resistant nature to environmental assaults such as incineration, immersion, trauma, multilation and decomposition, teeth represent an excellent source of DNA material. When conventional dental identification methods fail, this biological material can provide the necessary link to prove identity. Even root-filled teeth supply sufficient biological material for PCR analysis in order to be compared with known antemortem samples or paternal DNA. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains’ identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for dental DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the fundamentals for obtaining and analyzing DNA from the oral and dental tissues. The purpose of the Part II of this report is to review of the application of the DNA technology to forensic odontology cases, the responsibilities of the odontologist and the importance of DNA extracted from oral and dental tissues and saliva.
  C. Stavrianos , A. Eliades and A. Kokkas
  During the last years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Also, forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure, aircraft inflammation or mass disasters. Dental DNA represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The interest in using dental tissues as a DNA-source of individual identification falls within the particular character of resistance of this organ towards physical or chemical exterior aggressions. DNA can be used for determination of the found remains identity. The identification of individuals is not the only use for DNA. The technique has allowed criminal investigators to link victims to crime scenes once the body has been removed and incinerated. Therefore, it is prudent for the forensic odontologist to become familiar with the DNA analysis methods. The purpose of the Part I of this report is to review of the DNA structure and explain of some common terms which are used for the description of current methods of DNA analysis. Furthermore, the importance of mitochondrial DNA is reported because of its difference from the nuclear or chromosomal DNA in a number of ways that make it an attractive alternative for forensic analysis.
  C. Stavrianos , E.M. Dietrich , L. Zouloumis and A. Kokkas
  The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect increases in the modern societies as a result of global and population aging. It may take different forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual abuse, exploitation, neglect and abandonment. We present two cases of elder abuse. The first case is a male patient with dementia presenting periorbital and facial ecchymoses resulting from interfamilial violence. The second case is a female with facial injuries, bone fractures and severe brain injuries. Elder mistreatment remains even in the 21st century a well hidden issue. There are many factors that are featured as risk factors for elder abuse. Poverty and ageism are the two main risk factors according to the United Nations Report in 2002. In addition, risk factors are interdependent, rendering the problem of elder abuse complex. Its management requires its handling as a social problem. In this manner, dental and medical education should provide skills for the diagnosis of elder abuse as well as for the understanding of the complex interaction between injuries and illness in the elderly. These approaches need a cooperation of many professionals from different faculties that will be alert in order to detect cases of mistreatment that usually remain undetected. Conclusively, regardless of the strategies being chosen for the management of elder abuse and neglect, the aim should be the protection of the dignity and the rights of the elderly in order to provide healthy and active aging.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , L. Vasiliadis , A. Pantazis and A. Kokkas
  Historically, the civil procedures in England and Wales follow an adversarial approach. The criminal procedures started to develop an adversary system only in the 18th century. Since medieval times, the law system has grappled with issues as to when and how to use expert knowledge to assist it in the resolution of disputes. The earliest records of expert witness date back to the 14th century and involve cases in which surgeons were summoned to establish as whether a wound was fresh. The role of an expert witness is to assist the court on matters within their expertise. Courts rely on expert witness testimony in most civil and criminal cases to explain scientific matters that may not be understood by the judge or the jury. It is especially important for the dentist to demonstrate confidence in his testimony especially during the cross-examination. Above all the expert witness should keep in mind during the time of intensive interrogation that it is not him on trial even though it may seem to be at some times.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Zouloumis , E.M. Dietrich , C. Papadopoulos , P. Diamantopoulou and S. Moumtsakis
  In this part (II) we present the variety of reasons concerning the appearance of IPV which in no case do they justify this brutal action. There are also several factors of IPV behind this brutal behavior. It is really important to stress that there is no excuse relating to the violent behavior of the abuser. Moreover, since the victims feel ready to share these abusive experiences with the authorities, the clinical doctors and dentists, it is a necessity for the doctor/dentist to be aware of all the indications leading to the conclusion that we have a case of IPV. Having a physical examination combined with the strange behavior of the suspected victim, one can find the truth behind the story of a potential accident and prevent any further brutal behavior connecting with the victim. In concluding it is important to examine cases of domestic violence, the victim’s profile, all the dangerous consequences relating to IPV as well as approaches to help dealing with this phenomenon.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , J. Emmanouil and C. Papadopoulos
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two methods for the bite mark analysis in foodstuff. For the purposes of this study ten suspects participated as possible perpetrators of a bite mark found in a fresh apple which was seized at a supposed crime scene. The sample was kept in a sealed bag and stored in a fridge. The following day researchers applied the technique of obtaining an impression of the bite mark in the apple using light body vinyl polysiloxane which was injected without pressure from a central point to the bite mark periphery. A ring was constructed as barrier using a heavy body vinyl polysiloxane. The next stage was to pour model from the bite mark impression with the use of dental stone. Next step was to take dental impressions of the possible suspects using alginate impression material (protesil) and pour dental casts of the dentitions with dental stone. About 2 independent forensic dentists compared the pattern of the bite mark with the dental casts of the suspects using two different methods each time: the docking procedure (direct method) and the computer-assisted overlay production technique with Adobe Photoshop CS4 software (indirect method). The results of this study showed that the computer-based method for bite mark analysis was as accurate as the docking procedure in cases with bite marks in an apple and may be useful in a variety of substrates.
  C. Stavrianos , K. Louloudiadis , C. Papadopoulos , N. Konosidou , E. Samara and D. Tatsis
  Domestic violence and child abuse has become one of the latest social concerns and this trend can be clearly seen in the increasing number of reported cases. The aim of this case report is to present a case of physically abused child 11 years old. The 11 years old child had facial and oral traumas, in particular bruises and abrasions in the frontal area, the upper lip and the periorbital area about 65% of child abuse injuries involve head, neck or mouth areas. So, dental personnel may be in a good position to note abuse. As dentists, researchers are likely to be in contact with children who have been exposed to family violence the head and face are often easy targets of the abuse. The dental team that is alert to the fact that many children are been abused and that many of these abused children have injuries to the head and around the mouth may be able to identify an abused child and institute steps that might save the child’s life.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , C. Papadopoulos , A. Kokkas , D. Tatsis and E. Samara
  The term of bite marks is defined as the trauma caused on the skin from the contact of the teeth with or without the contribution of the soft oral tissues (lips, tongue) and which depicts the form of particular oral structures. The use of bite mark evidence in criminal or abuse cases has been widely accepted by law enforcement agencies and courts for many years. Several historical data reveals the significance of the proper recognition and identification of bite marks since the 17th century. With the evolution of Forensic Odontology, a plethora of new tools and equipment can be used to positively identify an assailant through a bite mark on the victim’s tissues. The current case report aims to present a victim’s ear loss due to a human bite during a fight and with this occasion to refer to the up-to-date standard elements of human bite marks regarding the concurrent categorization, the frequencies of incidences according to anatomical area, sex and type of crime.
  C. Stavrianos , E.M. Dietrich , L. Zouloumis , C. Papadopoulos , P. Diamantopoulou and S. Moumtsakis
  Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a type of abuse that occurs between two people who are involved in a close relationship. Many times emotional abuse is the first sign followed by the others. This is a well-known phenomenon reported in psychology for abusive behaviour often leads to physical or sexual assaults.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , J. Emmanouil , C. Papadopoulos , P. Kafas and P. Diamantopoulou
  Elder abuse is commonly defined as a single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person. A lady 81 years old presented to the hospital with dento-alveolar fracture of the left maxilla. The associated bruising of the left facial region was of great importance. The home care provider gave confused details about the fall injury. The patient had affected communication skills due to dementia disease. The suspicion of fall associated to abuse generated from the different views between the two persons. The mental status of the patient occasionally may seriously complicate obtaining an accurate history of the trauma. Therefore, the identification of such a pathological condition is complicated having as a consequence many cases to remain with incorrect diagnosis. The proper management of a patient of this type of injury will be discussed. Abusive behaviour by family carers towards people with dementia is common with a third reporting important levels of abuse and half some abusive behaviour. The role of dentist by contacting the responsible authorities such as forensic (medical, dental and psychiatric or psychological), social and other implicated local societies by law should be emphasized. The dentists should be aware of this abnormal behaviour in order to prevent and assess properly any suspected abuse in elder women or men.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , C. Papadopoulos , O. Pantelidou , A. Pantazis and N. Konosidou
  Violence against women often have signs of injury that are readily visible to dentists. Dentists have a moral and legal obligation to recognize and report suspected abuse and illustrations. The purpose of this study is to present a case of Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS), assist in diagnosing abuse and ensure that we give the criminal-justice system the tools it needs so that women’s rights are turned into reality.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , C. Papadopoulos , A. Pantazis , N. Petalotis , D. Tatsis and E. Samara
  The trauma caused on the skin from the contact of the teeth with or without the contribution of the soft oral tissues (lips, tongue) is defined as a bite mark. They can be caused either by humans or by animals and are usually found in two kinds of cases: crimes and homicides with and without sexual activity and child abuse. Bite marks can be found on both victims and assaulters. In mortal combat situations such as the violence associated with life and death struggles between assailants and victims, the teeth are often used as a weapon. Indeed using the teeth to inflict serious injury on an attacker may be the only available defensive method for a victim. The frequency of occurrence of bite injuries at specific locations varies with the type of crime and sex and age of the victim. This case report aims to present a victim who was involved in a fight and the facial bite mark on the right part of the face was the only evidence for that. The concurrent methodology on collecting data from the mark and the possible suspect as well as the comparison techniques is also reported.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Vasiliadis , J. Emmanouil , O. Pantelidou , A. Pantazis and C. Papadopoulos
  Seniors can be vulnerable to abuse for many reasons in many different aspects of life. Elder abuse refers to any action or inaction that threatens the well-being of a senior. Abuse can occur at home or in a residential facility at the hands of a family member or another caregiver. But abuse is not only about broken bones and bruises and marks seen on the body of the victim. There can be different types of elder abuse. The senior may be subjected to more than one type. Most common types are: physical abuse, sexual abuse, inactive abuse, active abuse, self-neglect or abandonment, financial exploitation and psychological abuse. Signs and symptoms can be noticed by neighbors and be reported. It is of major importance that the dentist/doctor is qualified and informed of the protocol on handling cases of elder abuse. Usually elder abuse is the well-kept secret of a family and it is a problem within families. Unfortunately elder abuse can happen to any family. The topic of elder abuse is difficult because all practitioners wish that it did not happen. Cases of family violence are hard to deal with because we know that they are not the result of some disease or accident. Instead, they are done deliberately. Although, victims are often reluctant to report their abuse, the fact that about 75% of physical injuries are inflicted to the region of the head, face, mouth and neck places dentists in a very good position to recognize the signs of abuse and take steps to intervene.
  C. Stavrianos , N. Petalotis , O. Pantelidou , C. Papadopoulos , A. Pantazis and L. Grigoropoulos
  Human beings biting themselves or other humans is something relatively common in Forensics. On the contrary is a very rare subject in Art. The aim of this study is to show nine cases in European painting where this action is depicted. They include frescoes, paintings on wood using tempera and oil colours on canvas, one engraving and two icons. Chronologically they span from 15-19th century. Four of them depict scenes from the Last Judgement of Christ, three of them are inspired from Dante’s Inferno as described in the Divine Comedy and the last two are marginal scenes of icons showing the life of St. Andrew the Apostle. Although, these paintings are not the only ones about this subject they are good examples. A thorough research in sculpture and minor arts may yield other examples.
  C. Stavrianos , E. Georgaka , G. Sarafidis , D. Aroni , L. Vasiliadis , G. Tretiakov and N. Petalotis
  The ability of the teeth to survive in most of the conditions encountered at death and during decomposition has made forensic dentistry very useful in recognition of unknown bodies. Recognition can be reached by comparison of the postmortem and antemortem dental record and determination if the two records were made or could have been made from the same individual. Dental identification depends on the condition of the victim and the availability of antemortem dental records and therefore an accurate dental charting with radiographs is of high importance and can lead to safer conclusions. As in every identification, DNA can play a significant role in dental ones. Additionally, dental prosthetics and endodontic imaging are valuable sources of data useful in the whole process.
  C. Stavrianos , L. Zouloumis , C. Papadopoulos , J. Emmanouil , N. Petalotis and P. Tsakmalis
  Forensic Odontology uses a variety of methods in identification of human remains. One of them is done by the use of facial mapping which involves the use of antemortem photographs and comparison with the postmortem skull. The current techniques are: morphological comparison, photoanthropometry or photogrammetry and photographic superimposition. Despite the fact that these techniques are complex and substain a variety of technical restrictions, they are widely approved and applied.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , O. Pantelidou , J. Emmanouil and N. Petalotis
  The human face holds key information about identity such as age, sex and ethnicity, information that enables the identification of a single individual. The photographs are used commonly in identifications procedures so that lay people can make cursory identification by comparing the suspect in question with his/her photograph. The other race effect appears to have a significant influence in the face recognition process and facia mapping analyses.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , O. Pantelidou , J. Emmanouil and N. Petalotis
  Recognizing the identities of people is a basic requirement for the establishment and maintenance of social act and communication and face recognition is an ability that humans develop and become very skilled as they grow up. Recognition has always been a very intriguing and highly researched topic and implies the tasks of identification or authentication. It is apparent that face recognition for human beings involves more than simple tasks of shape matching of features and face. Despite the fact that is not fully understood how humans recognise people what is known today is that they use a combination of identifiers such as height, voice and facial features.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , O. Pantelidou , J. Emmanouil , N. Petalotis and D. Tatsis
  In forensic practice, there is a frequent demand for comparison of facial images of perpetrators and suspects. Photoanthropometry is the science of measurements from precisely defined marker points of the face and is commonly used to provide opinion evidence of identity from examination of facial pictures. In facial mapping, it is based on quantitative analysis on measurements of the distances and angles between anatomical facial landmarks and the generation of indices based on them.
  C. Stavrianos , I. Ioannidou-Marathiotou , O. Pantelidou , N. Petalotis , E. Samara and D. Tatsis
  In this in vitro survey an examination of credibility of general and specific morphological characteristics of human palatal rugae was undertaken in order to be used at the process of identification or disassociation in Forensic Odontology. About 50 orthodontics’ cases were examined. The casts were collected before and after the orthodontic treatment which lasted from 18 months to 4 years. Then, the 50 after treatment casts were mixed among 100 other randomly selected casts. All the surfaces of the casts except for the one representing the palatal rugae were trimmed by an orthodontic trimmer. The 50 before treatment casts were given to 5 researchers and the last ones were asked to compare them with the 150 casts for possible similarities. The collection of data occurred by the form of percentage proportions of correct recognition and requisite time for compare and recognition. The 4 researchers identified the casts correctly at a percentage of 100% and the one combined correctly the 47 casts (94%), (non-statistic significant difference, t-test). It appears that the form of the palatal rugae is a rather distinctive attribute in order to be recognized between individual persons. It is concluded from this study that the general shape, size and other significant data are identified as unique and personalized forensic evidence of identification.
  C. Stavrianos , C. Papadopoulos , J. Emmanouil , A. Lefkelidou and N. Petalotis
  Verification of the identity of an unknown person is one of the most essential aspects of forensic practice. The reliability of identification of human remains by comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs of frontal sinus is well established as appear to be unique in each individual. A frontal sinus comparison can be particularly useful when an individual is edentulous. However, the use in practice of frontal sinus remains limited. The aim of this study is to present the method of identification through comparison of frontal sinus outlines radiographs.
  E. Metska , C. Stavrianos and L. Vasiliadis
  Age estimation is a process of particular interest in cases of forensic interest as well as in anthropological studies. Many methods have been suggested such as cementum thickness, dental colour, tooth attrition, secondary dentine formation, periodontosis, apical resorption and many techniques have been employed but root dentine translucency remains the method of choice providing the most accurate results for age estimation. The aim of the present study is: to investigate the correlation between the percentage of root translucency in human single-rooted teeth of the lower jaw and age to compare the percentage of translucency between the roots of a molar to compare the percentage of root dentine translucency of the same root of a molar in different individuals of know age. During the study, 44 fresh extracted teeth were utilized. In particular, 17 incisors, 13 canines, 3 premolars of the upper jaw, 3 first molars of the upper jaw and 7 of the lower jaw. The teeth were extracted from 32 individuals, between 12 and 77 years. Group A was made up of the single-rooted teeth of the lower jaw, whereas group B of the molars. Segments with 250 μ g thickness were scanned and saved as bitmap files. The translucency was measured with the use of Visio Professional 2002, a Microsoft product. There is a positive linear correlation between root dentine translucency and age, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.784. The is a lack of uniformity in dentine translucency among the roots of the same molar tooth. When each root by means of its translucency is taken into account, there is a gradual increase of root dentine translucency of all roots with age, except the distal roots of 2 samples. Among the results of the roots of the upper teeth there is uniformity in the development of root dentine translucency and the palatal root presents a higher percentage than the mesiobuccal and the previous a higher than the disto-buccal.
  C. Stavrianos , P. Stavrianou , L. Vasiliadis , A. Karamouzi , D. Tatsis and E. Samara
  Orofacial trauma is the most common trauma that occurs in the cases of abuse of young infants and children. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical abuse and the role of physicians and dentists in evaluating such conditions. This study addresses the evaluation of craniofacial injuries as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections and diseases that may be suspicious for child abuse or neglect. Physicians receive minimal training in oral health and dental injury and disease and thus, may not detect dental aspects of abuse or neglect as readily as they do child abuse and neglect involving other areas of the body. Therefore, physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection and treatment of these conditions. The current case report involves a young child with orofacial trauma. The historical trends of child abuse are outlined in order to prove the diachronic pattern of this phenomenon.
  C. Stavrianos , P. Stavrianou , L. Vasiliadis , A. Karamouzi , D. Mihailidou and G. Mihail
  Emotional abuse of children is a subtype of maltreatment and is very common in the 21st century. Although, it is very difficult, scientists and health professionals can detect all the risk factors and identify the perpetrators. The consequences of emotional abuse on the child may vary according to its nature and severity. Emotional abuse may result in greater susceptibility to life-long social and cognitive impairments and to health risk behaviors. Governments, health professionals and well-updated parents are ultimately responsible for the protection of children.
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility