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Articles by A.K. Verma
Total Records ( 13 ) for A.K. Verma
  A.K. Verma , V. Lakshmanan , Arun K. Das , S.K. Mendiratta and A.S.R. Anjaneyulu
  In the present study, physico-chemical and functional properties of buffalo head meat; heart meat and buffalo skeletal meat were estimated and compared. Moisture content of buffalo heart meat (78.42%) and head meat (76.94%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than buffalo skeletal meat (75.85%). Buffalo heart meat had significantly lower protein content (15.49%) than head meat (19.25%) and skeletal meat (19.84%). Fat and ash content of buffalo skeletal meat, head meat and heart meat did not differ significantly among themselves. pH of buffalo head meat (6.41) was significantly higher than skeletal meat (5.85) and heart meat (5.80). Salt extractable protein of head meat (12.02%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than skeletal meat (8.25%) and heart meat (8.52%). Heart meat had significantly (p<0.05) lower water holding capacity than skeletal and head meat. Shear force value and emulsifying capacity of heart meat were significantly (p<0.05) lower than skeletal and head meat. There was a significant difference in total pigment content between head (398.82 ppm), heart (338.98 ppm) and skeletal meat (243.89 ppm).
  A. Kumar , A.K. Verma and A. Rahal
  Not available
  Rajesh Kumar , A.K. Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava and H.P. Lal
  With the increasing trends of pet ownership the chances of campylobacteriosis are also increasing as these pets are kept in close visicinity of owners. The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of Campylobacter isolates from faeces of dogs attended in veterinary practice at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Mathura, India. During the period of investigation (October 2009 to April 2010), 100 rectal swabs from dogs were collected and transported to the laboratory for further investigations. Bacteriological examination revealed 51.00% prevalence rate of Campylobacter isolates in dogs faecal samples. The disc-diffusion method was used to know the susceptibility of all the 51 Campylobacter isolates against 10 commonly used antimicrobials in pet animal practice. High rates of resistance were observed to erythromycin (90.20%), tetracycline (88.23%), ampi-cloxacillin (88.23%), ciprofloxacin (80.39%), enrofloxacin (68.63%) and aymoxycillin-clavulanic acid (19.61%). All the Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to amikacin, levofloxacin and streptomycin. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. The high resistance rate to these drugs among Campylobacter isolates from dog faeces is of public health significance as dogs are supposed to be the main source of infection in human beings.
  Rajesh Kumar , A.K. Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava and H.P. Lal
  Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans and various researches suggested that owning a pet is a risk factor for the disease. To determine the prevalence and risk indicators for Campylobacter sp. infecting dogs attending veterinary practice at TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura, 100 dogs with and without the clinical symptoms of diarrhoea were examined and the prevalence of Campylobacter sp. was 51.0%. Breed wise prevalence showed that nondescript (73.68%) dogs were more likely to carry Campylobacter sp. A significant difference in isolation rates was observed between younger and older dogs: 56.58% of the younger dogs (≤ 1 year) were positive, compared with 33.33% of adult dogs (> 1 year) (p<0.01) as seen at the veterinary University, Mathura, India. Dogs sharing a household with another dog, dogs that had not received antibiotic treatment in the previous months and the age of the dog were significant indicators of Campylobacter carriage. Recent diarrhoea or vomiting in dogs with Campylobacter, breed, sex or vaccination status were not statistically significant. The high prevalence of Campylobacter in puppies supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly young ones shed Campylobacter spp., which can be of impact for public health.
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  Toroviruses are responsible for causing gastroenteritis in animals and humans. These are enveloped viruses with non-segmented and positive-sense (single stranded) RNA genome of 20 to 25 kilobases, pleomorphic and are associated with diarrhea in cattle, sheep, goat, pig and other animals and also in human beings. Morphological appearance of viruses is spherical/oval, elongated or kidney shaped. These show Torovirus-like (tubular and torus nucleocapsid in the cytoplasm of infected cells) appearance under the electron microscope and are approximately 100-140 nm in diameter, surrounded by club-shaped projections of 15-20 nm in length. Clinical signs of the disease are pyrexia, diarrhoea, dehydration, lethargy and depression in calves as well adults. In calves, the virus may lead to anorexia, mucoid faeces and neurological signs like generalised weakness, paralysis, inability to stand along with trembling and sudden death. In faecal samples, these can be identified by electron microscopy. Immunological tests Include Immuno-electron Microscopy (IEM), Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and southern blot. The molecular assays are reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested-RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. Combined use of ELISA and RT-PCR are considered is a practical approach for epidemiological studies of bovine torovirus. At present, no vaccine is available for torovirus. The only control measures available are good hygiene and sanitary conditions along with isolation of infected animals. The present review highlights the salient features of the torovirus, their epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and suitable prevention and control measures to be adopted.
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari , M. Saminathan and A.K. Verma
  Coronaviruses are positive-sense single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing a broad spectrum of diseases in domestic and wild animals including poultry and rodents. Based on antigenic and genetic similarities coronaviruses have been subdivided into 3 major antigenic groups. They infect and produce disease in multiple species of animals, human beings (group 1 and 2) and birds (group 3). Equine coronavirus (ECV) causes enteritis in foals. Complete genome of first ECV isolate NC99 strain has been recently sequenced. Cytolytic nature of the virus is responsible for occurrence of lesions in the small intestine, thereby causing diarrhea. Demonstration of Coronavirus antigens in clinical samples is test of choice for diagnosis. By electron microscopy (negative staining) Coronavirus like particles can be identified in fecal samples. Coronavirus antigen in fecal samples can be detected by antigen capture enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Molecular detection tool like reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has made the diagnosis more accurate. Virus characterization along with genogrouping has become easier these days with the advent of proteomics and phylogenetic studies. Currently, no vaccine is available for ECV. Biosecurity measures if adopted strictly prevent the disease. The present review highlights the salient features of the Coronavirus in general with special reference to ECV and the disease it causes in equines, its epidemiology, diagnosis and appropriate prevention and control measures to be adopted. The review would be helpful for understanding the virus/disease in a better way and alleviating economic losses to the equine/stud farm owners.
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , K. Karthik , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  Equine Encephalosis (EE) is an arthropod borne febrile non contagious disease of equines. The causative virus, Equine encephalosis virus (EEV), has several serotypes (EEV1-EEV7) and the virus has been reported from southern Africa including Kenya, Botswana and South Africa. EEV was first isolated in 1967 from horses in the Republic of South Africa. Like the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) EEV is also endemic in southern Africa. In most of the country, EE virus in comparison to AHSV has a higher transmission rate. Two species in the Culicoides imicola species complex, C. imicola (senso stricto) and C. bolitinos are known to transmit EEV. Zebra and elephants can act as maintenance host of the virus, making the elimination of the virus difficult. Outbreaks of EEV infection is reported to be associated with equine foetus abortion during the first 5-6 months of gestation. 32P-labelled genomic probes of EEV are used for detection of viral Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). Sero-epidemiological tools for the detection of antibodies against EEV include Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A novel real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay has also been developed for the detection of EEV by targeting the gene Viral Protein (VP)-7. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for this virus. Supportive treatment can only be provided. Management of horses in the stable is the key to control the spread of EEV in equines along with follow up of good biosecurity measures. The present review deals with all these aspects of the infection caused by this virus to enrich knowledge of researchers and equine/stud farm owners and the industry.
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  Powassan encephalitis is a rare but severe disease caused by infection with Powassan virus (POWV). It is a tick-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) having single stranded Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) which is positive sense in nature. The virus has highest case-fatality rates and is associated with a very high incidence of severe neurologic sequelae. Humans contract POWV infection accidentally when they are exposed to areas where the virus, arthropod vector (an Ixodid tick) and the vertebrate natural hosts coexist. Reported incubation periods for Powassan virus range from 8 to 34 days. The disease is associated with a reactive inflammatory cellular infiltrate (chronic) of lymphocytes and macrophages that include the abundance of perivascular inflammatory cells and multiple foci of parenchymal cells in grey matter. Basically two diagnostic approaches are considered. First one is the direct detection of the virus or viral RNA in the initial (viremic) phase of infection by virus isolation in mammalian cell culture or by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Second is the indirect detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG antibodies) with serological methods such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) or Neutralization Tests (NTs). Phylogenetic analysis is important for genogrouping of the virus. Oligomers targeting specific locations in the RNA genome of the flavivirus have been used at present for successful suppression of viral gene expression. Strict hygienic and biosafety measures including tick control is pre-requisite for prevention of disease. The present review will give an insight to the details of disease caused by this arbovirus that may often prove fatal, its epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control measures to be adopted.
  A.K. Singh , A.K. Verma , Neha , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama and S.V. Singh
  By 2050 to feed the estimated human population of around 9 billion, there is requirement of 50% increase the food production, which can only be fulfilled by clean, healthy and sustainable food animal production. Livestock industry is facing considerable economic losses due to infectious diseases. So an effective control strategy is need of today to control these infectious diseases and contribute in augmentation of livestock production. Parasitic diseases have a major impact on livestock production, reproduction and hence economy. Protozoan parasites are major causes of human and animal disease causing extensive morbidity and mortality, particularly parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions. Many protozoal parasitic diseases are zoonotic. Limiting the impact of parasitism in both man and livestock relies almost exclusively on the use of antiparasitic drugs. Development of resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents has forced the scientist to discover some alternative for control of parasitic diseases. Recent advances in immunology and biotechnology have sensitized the scientists or researchers to develop the newer and safer vaccines for control of parasitic diseases. This review is intended to provide state-of-art information to the reader with an overview on the trends, advances and perspectives in vaccines and vaccinology against important parasitic diseases of livestock and poultry viz., coccidiosis, anaplasmosis, giardiosis, babesiosis, Neospora infection, toxoplasmosis, theleriosis, sarcocyst infestation, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and trichomoniasis, which altogether play crucial role in the prevention of protozoan parasitic diseases of animals.
  J. Pamnani Nanak , A.K. Verma and R. Bhatt Darshana
  Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is highly workable concrete with high strength and high performance that can flow under its own weight through restricted sections without segregation and bleeding. SCC is achieved by reducing the volume ratio of aggregate to cementitious materials, increasing the paste volume and using various viscosity enhancing admixtures and superplasticizers. It is observed that the behaviour of the design concrete mix is significantly affected by variation in humidity and temperature both in fresh and hardened state. In this study, effect of 5 water-based curing techniques on compressive strength of M30 grade Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is discussed. It is observed that immersion method for curing gives maximum compressive strength while the lowest compressive strength is for ice curing. Hot water and sea water give 2nd highest strength at 28 days. It is concluded that, although pond immersion method is best for curing in extreme weather conditions SCC can prove effective for hot weather and sea water conditions. Wet covering method is quite effective giving about 92% strength than that of strength received from immersion method. In cold weather compressive strength gain is quite less about 82%.
  S. Shamshad Ahmad , Kafil Akhtar , A.K. Verma , Amjad Zia Mallik and Shahid Ali Siddiqui
  The present study was planned to explore the influence of total peripheral lymphocyte count in cancer patients and to ascertain its prognostic significance. 100 cases were divided into 2 groups: test group comprised of 75 cancerous cases and control group of 25 cases who did not suffer from any problem known to alter the immune status. After a detailed clinical history and examination, routine investigations and certain specific investigations like ultra-sonography, intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology were performed. Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) using Turk’s fluid was performed along with differential count from peripheral smear and Total Peripheral Lymphocyte Count (TPLC) was calculated by the formula: TPLC = TLC x percentage of lymphocytes in differential count. Majority of the malignant cases belonged to the fifth decade. Histologically, carcinoma was most frequent, 92.0% cases, followed by sarcoma, 6.6% and melanoma, 1.3% cases. The mean TPLC in the control group was 2759.12±955.7 and it was significantly depressed in all the malignant cases. In breast carcinoma, TPLC was found to decrease with disease progression and was stage dependent. TPLC shows promise as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator of malignancy.
  K. Dhama , S. Rajagunalan , S. Chakraborty , A.K. Verma , A. Kumar , R. Tiwari and S. Kapoor
  The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and chlonangio-pancreatography) have aided in the diagnosis greatly. Most of the food-borne illnesses are self-limiting but in many instances antibiotics are recommended. With the increased drug resistance however use of chicken immunoglobulin, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics and herbs are gaining much importance these days. Adoption of proper prevention and control measures (including cooking procedures; hygiene, strict adherence to HACCP principles, public awareness and disease surveillance and monitoring) are the need of hour. All these have been discussed vividly in this review to help epidemiologists, diagnosticians, clinicians and above all common people so as to enable them avoid negligence regarding such serious issue.
  K. Dhama , S. Kapoor , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  A fascinating and important arbovirus is Ross River Virus (RRV) which is endemic and epizootic in nature in certain parts of the world. RRV is a member of the genus Alphavirus within the Semliki Forest complex of the family Togaviridae, which also includes the Getah virus. The virus is responsible for causing disease both in humans as well as horses. Mosquito species (Aedes camptorhynchus and Aedes vigilax; Culex annulirostris) are the most important vector for this virus. In places of low temperature as well as low rainfall or where there is lack of habitat of mosquito there is also limitation in the transmission of the virus. Such probability is higher especially in temperate regions bordering endemic regions having sub-tropical climate. There is involvement of articular as well as non-articular cells in the replication of RRV. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); interferon-gamma (IFN-γ); and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 (MAC-1) during disease pathogenesis have been found to be reduced. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most advanced molecular diagnostic tool along with epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting RRV infection. Treatment for RRV infection is only supportive. Vaccination is not a fruitful approach. Precise data collection will help the researchers to understand the RRV disease dynamics and thereby designing effective prevention and control strategy. Advances in diagnosis, vaccine development and emerging/novel therapeutic regimens need to be explored to their full potential to tackle RRV infection and the disease it causes.
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