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Abstract: In this study, the technical efficiency of swamp and upland rice farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria were estimated and compared certain policy variables (farm/farmers characteristics) were identified and quantified. A cost itinerary approach was adopted in obtaining information from 96 (56 swamp and 40 upland) rice farmers were selected by a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A stochastic frontier function that incorporated inefficiency effects was estimated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) technique. The results indicate that, swamp and upland rice farmers in the State were not fully technically efficient. Their mean efficiencies were 0.77 and 0.87 for swamp and upland rice systems, respectively and were not significantly different at the 5% level. The results also indicate that, farmers’ educational level, membership of association and access to credit positively influenced their levels of efficiency in both production systems. The coefficients of age and household were negative and significant in determining efficiency of upland rice farmers in the State, while in the swamp they had no significant effect though carried negative signs. Implications are that policies that would encourage relatively younger and educated persons and provide them easy access to credit if made and implemented will go a long way in addressing the resource use inefficiency of the farmers.