Technological advancements followed by industrialization on one hand and exploding population on the other are polluting the water significantly. Thus demand for quality as well as clean water supply in last few decades has been increased tremendously for the benefit of mankind. Industries like steel/coke plants, textiles, tanneries, refineries, pulp and paper industries, distilleries, metal processing and electroplating units are the major polluters of water and its environment. Most of these mills are generating a large quantity of wastewater with high organic load, high odor due to presence of sulfides, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, fats, oils and greases; including heavy metal complexes even cyanide (coke plant waste). Conventional activated sludge process may not be sufficient enough to tackle all these problems and meet the discharge limits set by the pollution control boards. Waste water generated from these industries contaminated with aforesaid contaminants can be managed very effectively by a recently developed technology in the field of environment known as Bio-augmentation Technology-an unique technology of augmenting or supplementing the existing bacterial population with specifically adapted bacteria that can reduce waste water faster or capable of degrading compounds that are primarily non-biodegradable. It enables plants to meet discharge limits with existing facilities in a cost effective manner without going for any capital investment. In this study, a successful application of Bio-augmentation technology using Augment P5 in a textile plant effluent has been presented as a case study. More than 50% improvement in plant efficiency with respect to biological degradation (BOD) of wastewater could be achieved. In case of TSS and COD reduction, the values in terms of improvement in plant/system efficiency were observed to be around 47 and 53%, respectively.