Measurement of the levels of total protein, creatinine, uric acid, urea, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) in the blood is useful in assessing the functional integrity of the renal tissues. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to 10, 20 and 30 mg kg-1 b.wt. of nitrocellulose thinner on these serum renal function indices and histopathology of the renal tissues was assessed. Twenty four adult male albino rats (120-150 g), divided into one control and three test groups of six rats each, were used in this study. The rats in the control group were administered with normal saline, while the graded concentrations of the nitrocellulose solvent were each administered orally, as a single daily dosage, for 30 days. The results showed that exposure to nitrocellulose thinner caused a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase in the levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, urea, BUN and K+, as well as decrease in the levels of total serum protein, Cl-, HCO3- and Na+ in rat model. However, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in serum Ca2+ levels obtained for the rats between and within the test groups, compared to the control. Also, the result of microscopic examinations showed a dose dependent histopathological damage to the renal tissues of rats exposed to nitrocellulose thinner. The observations made from the tissue microscopic analysis, in correlation with that of biochemical assay, indicated the existence of disturbances in the filtration function of the kidneys in rats exposed to higher dosages of the solvent. Hence, the results obtained from our biochemical and histopathogical findings suggested that nitrocellulose thinner possesses the potential (s) of inducing nephrotoxicity in rats.