Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted protein that circulates in high concentrations in the serum and acts to increase insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure by binding and activating its specific receptor in the hypothalamus. Clinical aspects of diabetes and obesity are somewhat different, even at similar levels of insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was carried out to determine serum leptin, serum adeponectin and to compare leptin to adeponectin ratio in diabetic and non-diabetic obese participants. One hundred patients were enrolled in the study, 40 type 2 diabetic obese, 40 obese persons and 20 non-obese volunteers as a control group. Body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio was calculated. Laboratory investigations were: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, Creatinine, fasting and post-prandial glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, leptin and adiponectin. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups, Group I: included 40 obese (mean BMI was 33.6±2.0 kg m-2) patients with type II diabetes. The mean of HbA1c was 6.9±1.5%; serum TGs was 141.6±93 mg %; serum creatinine was 0.86±0.15 mg %; serum leptin was 12.9±0.35 ng mL-1; serum adiponectin was 6.44±0.16 μg mL-1. Group II: included a total number of 40 obese (mean BMI was 34.8±1.2 kg m-2) participants The mean of HbA1c was 5.6±2.7%; serum TGs was 115±54 mg %; serum creatinine was 0.95±0.2 mg %; serum leptin was 8.7±0.5 ng mL-1; serum adiponectin was 7.84±0.25 μg mL-1. Group III: included a total number of 20 non-obese volunteers (age ranged from 28 to 58 with a mean of 44.9±14.5 years; 13 males and 7 females). The mean of HbA1c was 5.2±0.5%; serum TGs was 104±22 mg %; serum creatinine was 0.84±0.5 mg %; serum leptin was 5.2±0.2 ng mL-1; serum adiponectin was 9.2±0.3 μg mL-1. Present results showed that obesity, WHR and DM are inversely associated with adiponectin, directly associated with leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio.