In this study, the mutagenesis of cement dust on plants and animals was investigated. The cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cement dust was monitored using Allium cepa test model. Allium cepa grouped into 4 of 10 A. cepa per group, after taking their baselines, were exposed to cement dust over three different periods of time at about 100 m from a cement factory. The control group (group 1) was kept in an environment free of cement dust pollution, about 6 km from the cement factory. The test groups (groups 2-4) were exposed to the dust for 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively. The elemental analysis of the A. cepa in the test groups revealed significant (p<0.05) levels of calcium, silicon, aluminum, chromium and lead compared to the control group. Also, significant differences (p<0.05) exist among the levels of the elements detected in the A. cepa in various test groups. Furthermore, the mean root length growths and the relative growth rates of the test groups were higher than the control, but there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) among them. However, there was a direct linear relationship between the concentrations of calcium and root length growths of the A. cepa across the groups. Chromosomal aberrations observed in the test groups are stickiness, c-mitosis, chromosomal bridge, chromosome fragmentation, vagrant chromosomes, bi-nucleus chromosomes and multi-polar anaphase. No chromosomal aberration was observed in the control group. The total number of chromosomal aberrations increases significantly (p<0.05) with the length of exposure. The findings of the research highlight the toxicity of cement dust and the need for pollution control measures to safeguard plants and animals in the environment.