A combination of social survey and direct field observation were used to identify plant species whose stems and/or roots were sourced for barks in the twelve senatorial districts of four core Yoruba-speaking states of Nigeria. Five communities were selected from each senatorial district and in each community, ten respondents were selected and interviewed. Also two major market centers were selected in each district and in each market center, ten botanical vendors were randomly selected and interviewed. All the interviews were conducted with the aid of semi-structured matrix. Voucher specimens of plant species identified were collected from both the community and market surveys. The extractive method(s) utilized on each species were observed and the species abundance was determined. A total of 115 species were used as sources of bark including roots of 20 species, stems of 51 species and a combined stems and roots of 43 species. The extraction methods utilized in these botanicals were mostly predatory or annihilative. Most of the debarked botanicals were indigenous species, uncultivated with poor regenerative abilities. Ecological strategies that would enhance the conservation of these botanicals were proposed.