The present study was designed to explore the nephrotoxic effect of intraperitoneal acute administration of CdCl2 (2.5 and 5 mg kg-1 b.w.) in rats. A number of toxicological parameters in kidney were examined including malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidants, e.g., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx). The parameters that indicate tissue damage such as serum urea and creatinine were also determined, along with the ultrastructural changes of kidneys. A correlation was found between the dose and the intensity of changes. The results demonstrated that cadmium administration increased renal MDA but decreased CAT, SOD and GPx activities. In parallel, serum creatinine and urea elevated. The glomerular ultrastructural changes observed in cadmium-treated rats included narrowing of the capillary lumen and swelling of the capillary endothelium with occasional loss of fenestrae. The mesangium was wide with increased mesangial matrix. Loss of homogenous appearance of basement membrane displaying ondulation and thickening in many areas and deterioration of the slit membrane structures formed by the podocytes were also noted. The effects of cadmium on proximal cell ultrastructure were focal loss of brush border, nuclear membrane damage, chromatin condensation, swelling of the mitochondria with regression of mitochondrial cristae, degranulation and disintegration of protein-synthesizing structures such as rough endoplasmic reticulum, increased number of lysosomes and ultimately cell death.
Ashraf M. Abdel-Moneim and Kamar M. Said , 2007. Acute Effect of Cadmium Treatment on the Kidney of Rats: Biochemical and Ultrastructural Studies. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 3497-3506.