Many people in rural Bangladesh use a traditional contraceptive pill, Shanti Bori to control fertility in which Tragia involucrata is one of the components. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of antifertility effect of this plant. The hexane (HE) and ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) of the aerial parts of T. involucrata have been evaluated for the anti-fertility activity in proven fertile female rats at dose of 200 mg kg-1 body weight. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phytosterols, triterpenes and flavonoids in the extracts. HE and EAE showed significant anti-fertility activity. It was found that the extracts reduced the number of litters born significantly at the dose of 200 mg kg-1 body weight. HE and EAE exhibited 81 and 50% antiimplantation potency respectively at the tested dose. The extracts also showed the estrogenic activity and potentiated the action of the standard drug ethanyl estradiol. All these observations suggest that extracts have antiimplantation as well as the abortifacient activity and are safe at the effective antifertility doses employed in this study.