Soil nutrient depletion is becoming one of the major challenges of agricultural production for the stallholder farmers in Ethiopia. This study was conducted with the aim of determining N, P and K (kg ha-1 year-1) balance at farm level and to assess the role of farmers wealth diversity in maintaining and improving soil nutrients. The balance of nutrient was determined by monitoring N, P and K flow in to the soil with mineral fertilizer (IN1), manure (IN2), biological nitrogen fixation (IN3) and wet deposition (IN4) and out of the soil through crop product (OUT1), crop residue (OUT2), leaching (OUT3), gaseous loss (OUT4) and water erosion (OUT5). Statistically, highly significant (p = 0.001) difference was observed between locations, resource rich and poor groups farmers for soil chemical properties and nutrient depletion rates. But, none significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between resource rich and medium groups farmers. On the other hand, strongly positive correlation was observed between locations and rate of N (r = 0.91) and K (r = 0.88). The amount of rainfall, use of fertilizers, land management practices and landscape determine the rate of nutrient depletion. Therefore, to ensure smallholder food security and sustainable agricultural practices landscape based integrated soil fertility management practices should be adopt across wealth groups.