Meat species specification is an area which needs specialized attention in the food quality management system. It is a vital field to ensure the food safety to the consumers and it conserves the laws related to meat and meat products. The adulteration of inferior quality meat into superior quality meat is a common practice all over the world. Using meat species specification techniques we can easily solve the problems of vetro-legal or forensic cases particularly related to Prevention of Cow Slaughter Act, Prevention of Food Adulteration Act in India and related laws existing worldwide. Various methods are available right from physical, chemical, anatomical, histological and biological to sophisticated molecular techniques. All these methods have pros and cons so the knowledge of all these techniques is of immense value for the persons having some stakes in this specialized field. If the meat is in carcass form, it can be easily identified with the physical, chemical, anatomical and histological methods but the reproducibility and quantitative identification is not possible. In biological methods we use the simple method of antigen-antibody reaction for visual identification. In electrophoresis, the migration of the protein moiety according to their molecular weight under the influence of electric field principle is applied. The band patterns produced in this technique is them visualized for result interpretation. In recent molecular techniques DNA and RNA amplification is done to produce the fingerprints as per the characteristics of an identical genetic material for a particular meat species. Now the development of PCR technique makes easy to identify the meat species even from the cooked and spoiled meat in which protein is easily destroyed. Real time PCR is the revolution in this field in which we can identify and monitor the product during its amplification. Although no single technique is sufficient for differentiation of all types of meat species and meat products.