In June 2003, direct field observations of fallows, near and distant farms were carried out in Edo State Nigeria, for indigenous woody species composition and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. crop combinations. To document indigenous knowledge of pigeon pea and determine its potential for planted fallow, a sample site was chosen in each of five southern and five northern local government areas of the 18 LGAs in the state, seven in lowland rainforest and three in forest savanna mosaic. At each site, 10 randomly selected farmers were interviewed. Useful indigenous woody species were common in cultivated fields in the two agroecological zones of the state. Farmers identified poor soil as second major production constraint after cash/credit in their farming systems. Combinations with maize, cassava and yams, ranged from 4% frequency of Discorea/Cajanus in home gardens to 37% Zea/Cajanus in distant farms. Farmers rated the plant as the second most important vegetable protein after cowpea. In Esan LGA, it is the preferred grain legume. Seven uses of pigeon pea were rated from food (100%) to cover crop (5%). Desirable traits of pigeon pea in order of priority were-faster cooking varieties, high yielding varieties, pest resistant varieties, day neutral varieties and varieties suitable for home gardens. The potential of pigeon pea for planted fallow is high in the northern zone due to its cultural, economic, nutritional and agricultural importance. Genetic resources management and fallow technology research will facilitate the adoption and spread of pigeon pea in planted fallows in Edo State.