Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been recognized as a valuable tool for quality control in both industry and laboratories. The aim of this review is to describe the ability of the dynamic NIR spectroscopy to in-line monitor bread dough mixing. Dynamic NIR spectroscopy can be defined as the use of NIR spectroscopy methods as an in-line tool to monitor processing. Different configurations for probing dough mixer with the NIR spectrometer have been considered to continuously record NIR spectrum as a function of mixing time. More or less complex statistical methods of the NIR spectrum collection have been tested to construct NIR mixing curves, to determine optimum mixing times and to identify the relevant NIR wavelengths related to chemical interactions between the dough components (water, starch, protein and lipids). Analysis of NIR spectroscopy data give opportunities to complete the description of the physico-chemical mechanisms involved in bread dough development (hydration of starch and proteins and development of the gluten network during mixing).