This review summarizes shortly about bioactive metabolites produced by actinomycetes group. The Actinomycetes get their name from the fact that some of them form branching filaments that look kind of like the branching hyphae (collectively referred to as a mycelium) formed by fungi. In an effort to lessen confusion, Actinomycetes are now commonly referred to as Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria are neat because they tend to produce cool secondary metabolites, many of which have been successfully isolated and turned into useful drugs and other organic chemicals. In particular, an appreciable number of Actinobacteria produce antibiotics, which they use to compete with fungi and other bacteria for resources (and because they are totally badass). The genus Streptomyces (not to be confused with Streptococcus!) is a particularly fruitful source of these compounds, a number of which have been developed as antifungals, antibiotics (antibacterials) and chemotherapeutic (anticancer) drugs. Actinomycetes, mainly Streptomyces species, produce tetracyclines, aminoglycosides (streptomycin and its relatives), macrolides (erythromycin and its relatives), chloramphenicol, ivermectin, rifamycins and most other clinically useful antibiotics that are not beta-lactams. Actinomycetes are the most predominantly used in antibiotic production technology.