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Asian Journal of Cell Biology
  Year: 2012 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 13-31
DOI: 10.3923/ajcb.2012.13.31
Towards a C4 Rice
Govinda Rizal, Shanta Karki, Vivek Thakur, Jolly Chatterjee, Robert A. Coe, Samart Wanchana and William Paul Quick

Abstract:
The success of the green revolution that began in the 1960s led to an increase in rice yield of up to 10 fold that was sufficient to meet the food demand of a continually growing population. This rapid increase in rice yield has not been repeated even after four decades, while the global population continues to grow rapidly. To meet the food demand of the soaring population, rice yields should increase by at least 50% within next four decades. Despite the best efforts of plant breeders, the prospect of a second drastic increase in yield using conventional approaches is unlikely but may be possible if we redesign rice photosynthesis into C4 type. A C4 type of photosynthesis is much more efficient than the C3 type found in wheat and rice and could facilitate an increase in yield potential to levels found in C4 crops like sorghum and maize. Although, C4 plants evolved from the C3, there are distinct differences in their leaf structure (evolution of Kranz anatomy) and biochemistry. The same would be needed for the development of a C4 rice plant. In 2009, a consortium of scientists was formed to develop C4 rice. The consortium is using multiple approaches which include but are not limited to; alteration of genomes of C3 and C4 plant species, exploration of wild Oryza accessions and bioinformatics to discover new genes underlying C4 photosynthesis. The already known or newly discovered genes of C4 pathway are being systematically introduced into rice. Here we review the strategies adopted by the C4 rice project coordinated by the International Rice Research Institute.
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How to cite this article:

Govinda Rizal, Shanta Karki, Vivek Thakur, Jolly Chatterjee, Robert A. Coe, Samart Wanchana and William Paul Quick, 2012. Towards a C4 Rice. Asian Journal of Cell Biology, 7: 13-31.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcb.2012.13.31

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcb.2012.13.31

 
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