In Kashmir, Salix is cultivated on large scale. There are diverse cultivars of Salix found in Kashmir Valley but they are not well demarked due to similarities in certain morphological characteristics. Salix species is an important source of aspirin and salicylic acid. It has tremendous economic importance. Its wood is used for manufacturing different types of furniture, bats etc. Therefore, in the present study a fingerprinting technique has been used to differentiate cultivars of Salix found in Kashmir Valley. Among Salix cultivars, genetic diversity has been ascertained in the S. viminalis using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. AFLP analysis of different Salix viminalis cultivars which were difficult to identify morphologically revealed that they are different cultivars of the same species. AFLP markers were able to reveal that the four Salix cultivars taken for study were highly diverse at genetic level. The 4 primers used generated a total of 240 bands of which 197 (82%) were polymorphic. The broad genetic base can be attributed to their out-crossing nature. Our study may be useful in identifying diverse genetic stock of S. viminalis, which may be conserved on priority basis.